Pituitary adenoma that over the "beast" and how to treat it?
Tumors localized in the pituitary gland are not uncommon. Most of them are adenomas derived from cells of the pituitary gland, the organ responsible for the production of various hormones in the body. Pituitary adenoma — benign tumor of ethology, growing at a slow pace.
Where are adenomas?
The causes of pituitary adenoma, in the event the tumor is not fully understood. However, now, we can say that they arise spontaneously: after injuries, neuroinfections (tuberculosis, meningitis, malaria) or hormonal disturbances.
Genetic predisposition is theoretically possible, but it's a rare exception to the rule.
Women adenoma occurs in patients receiving oral contraceptives. During pregnancy, due to stressful situations or external influences newborns adenoma diagnosed immediately after birth or during fetal ultrasound.
How to recognize the disease?
This disease is quite common. Small in size, adenomas are at each 5 person on the planet. They don't grow and you find them while undergoing MRI examination on another occasion.
When the disease, symptoms of pituitary adenoma are varied and depend on:
- where the tumor;
- the size of tumors;
- their activity and growth.
- 1. Dormant — "sleeping" that do not produce hormones. During the period of growth, reaching a certain size, their weight putting pressure on the Dura, which leads to visible symptoms. From the point of view, due to the displacement of the nerve, gradually disrupt its function. Often, there is complete blindness. Constant headaches that do not stop after taking pain meds. In rare cases, the disease manifests itself abruptly. Violations are developing in a few days/weeks, and if involved the hypothalamus, frequent loss of consciousness.
Acting on the gland, they disrupt her work. In the human body there is a great shortage of hormones. Leads to infertility.
- 2. Active — causes a surge of hormones. Because of the violation of the background of the human body grows unchecked itself (gigantism) or some of its organs: hands, feet, the front part (acromegaly), thyroid function in hypertonicity.
When you increase cortisol production in large quantities, the patient is diagnosed with syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga. When it comes weight gain. A person acquires a Crescent-shaped form. Skin pigmentation broken.
If there is the slightest suspicion of the presence of the adenoma should have a complete exam.
- blood and urine for hormones, they will help to determine the type of neoplasm and its activity;
- a visit to the ophthalmologist, where determine visual acuity and the presence of pathological changes in the optic nerve;
- MRI of pituitary adenomas to identify the exact location and size of the tumor.
How to treat adenoma?
The type of treatment is chosen individually. A major role is played by many factors. Now, with the development of many technologies, treatment of pituitary adenoma is possible in several ways.
The most common method of treatment.
During surgery, the pituitary adenoma of the brain, it is carried out in several ways:
- through the nasal cavity, and, in particular, its back — transnasal;
- through the holes in the nasal septum, transseptal;
- through a small incision in the mouth under the upper lip of the patient — transsphenoidal.
The operation was conducted by special binocular magnifier, a picture on the monitor. Adenoma, careful not to breakthe integrity of the pituitary gland, scraped with special tools. These operations are possible only when the tumor is located in the cavity of the Sella. If its dimensions are large or located abnormally, the operation is performed in several stages. On the ground — excision and prolapse of the tumor in the required area, the second complete removal of the tumor.
Which adenoma you can't remove?
Adenoma of the brain, located in close proximity to blood vessels and venous or nerve plexus, the most problematic to remove. Due to the risk of extensive bleeding or dysfunctions, in case of accidental damage to the nerve fibers, the complete removal of the tumor impossible. Surgeon cuts off only part of it, and the further treatment is carried out with the use of conservative methods.
When microadenoma that are inactive and do not cause changes in the body, surgery is not carried out.
Used in the treatment is inactive, in hormonal terms, adenomas, with contraindications for surgery or in elderly patients. After the surgery with a partial removal of the adenoma prescribed radiation therapy as additional method of treatment.
The essence of treatment is that patients prescribed cyproheptadine, which has the ability to block the production and synthesis of enzymes of the pituitary gland. Drug therapy effective against small entities. When taking dopamine agonists, the growth stops and the size reduced.
What is the consequence of the removal of a tumor in the pituitary gland?
Surgery to remove adenomas of the pituitary gland directly affects the proper functioning of the organ. Due to the removal of the front lobe, where the tumor, disrupted adrenal glands. Against this background, it can be observed renal failure. It develops from 1.5 days to one month, immediately after surgery.
Disturbed vision. Its recovery depends on the course and period of the disease. If the person is long delayed the trip to the hospital with progressive blindness, the restoration of function of the optic nerve is virtually impossible. If treatment is started immediately after the first signs of the disease, the prognosis for these patients is favorable.
The effects of pituitary adenoma after removal, observed violations by:
- circulation, and, in particular, in the pituitary gland;
- reproductive system. Violation of hormone production lead to reduced potency or libido;
- the thyroid gland, the executable function is impaired, there is iodine deficiency.
Despite the impressive list of negative consequences, there are positive aspects:
- the rate of sugar in the blood remains unchanged;
- restore the bones or tissues is not broken.
Folk remedies: to drink or not to drink?
Treatment of pituitary adenomas folk remedies common in people. Patients are advised to eat pumpkin seeds, seasoned with honey or sesame seeds. Of tinctures proponents of complementary therapies are advised to drink the infusion of the bug. It is worth to remember that at the first sign of adenoma you need to contact the specialists: oncologists or neurosurgeons. The treatment itself is inappropriate here and may lead to tragic consequences.