What is adenoma of the intestine?
Adenoma of the intestine is a benign formation in the intestine, which occurs as a result of the pathological process. Adenoma or polyp, which grows on the surface of the colon, creating a likelihood of developing cancer. Adenoma is considered a precancerous condition that makes it dangerous to the patient. With age the risk of developing polyps increases. The size of the polyps and the species to which they belong, have value in assessing the probable degeneration into a malignant form. With sizes up to 1 cm adenoma does not pose great danger, when larger than 1 cm, the probability of developing cancer is about 10 %.
Types of adenomas
There are 3 types of adenomas of the intestine. These include:
- tubular adenoma is the most common type among adenomas of the intestine, the prognosis is most favorable;
- tubular-villous adenoma may occur in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract; this type of polyps has an increased risk of degeneration into a malignant form.
- villous adenoma except of the large intestine, can occur in other areas of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the rectum; is the most dangerous form of polyps, which carries a high risk of degeneration of a neoplasm into a malignant form (40% probability of conversion).
Causes of development of intestinal adenomas
Causes adenomas of the intestine, is not precisely determined, but there are some prerequisites for the formation of pathology. These include:
- unfavorable ecological situation;
- work in hazardous industry;
- lack of physical activity;
- harmful and improper diet;
- concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and other pathologies.
From the diet directly affects the condition of the body. Food containing a large quantity of carcinogens, or eating high-calorie foods containing large amounts of animal fats when there is insufficient consumption of fiber, can reduce motor activity of the intestine. This leads to the formation of substances that are carcinogens. They have a negative impact on the condition of the gut, changing the microflora. Gradually can form a polyp.
At the initial stage the symptoms of adenoma of the intestine may be missing. Therefore, the disease is detected only for preventive examinations or accidentally during examination of the patient about other disease.
When a tumor of a certain size (over 2 cm) it begins to make itself felt. The clinical picture is the following:
- soreness during bowel movements;
- discomfort, itching in the area of the anal canal;
- the appearance of a large amount of mucus in the stool or blood;
- violation of stool (constipation or diarrhea);
- abdominal pain and bloating.
When education reaches a particularly large size, it may become the cause of obstruction. This releases a large amount of mucus with the stool. As a result of her increased formation of the patient may occur violations of water-electrolyte balance, imbalance of proteins in the body. Can also develop anemia.
For the diagnosis of adenomas of the intestine are finger examination of the rectum, which allows to identify not only adenoma, but also many other pathologies of the colon, and sigmoidoscopy. This method allows to detect most of the formations of the large intestine.
For a more precise assessment of the condition of the intestine used x-ray examination and endoscopy. Forthe detection of polyps of small size is used barium enema. As additional tests are applied histological examination.
Treatment adenomas bowel is surgical removal of education. Medication is not yet effective. Furthermore, the formation may be malignant. In the diagnosis a biopsy may not give a precise answer about the nature of education, as to examine not whole the adenoma, but only its outskirts. The malignant process may unfold in the center of the polyp. The conclusion about the presence of cancer is done after removal education.
The operation can be performed in several different ways. But before operating in any case carry out the cleansing of the bowel. After removal of the adenoma is carried out antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy, which helps to avoid possible complications. After the surgery the patient for a long time watching.