Description of adenoma of the salivary gland
Adenoma of the salivary gland is the most common benign tumor. Usually, education occurs in a single number, but occasionally there are multiple adenomas. Adenomas of this type can affect both men and women, but women affected by the disease to a greater extent. Are more susceptible to adenomas of the salivary gland of the elderly aged 50 years.
Education has clear boundaries-it is shaped like a capsule which can be of different thickness. The tumor is round or oval in shape. Tissue formation of dense, whitish, or of a different color. The tumor cells may be different in composition. Large tumor size accompanied by hemorrhage and tissue death (necrosis).
Adenoma may occur in the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. It can occur on the left or right (if it arises in the parotid salivary gland).
The reasons for the development of pathology
Reliably the causes of adenoma of the salivary gland has not been established, but studies have shown that the pathological adenoma develops from the glandular epithelium. It is believed that the preconditions to beginning this process are improper diet, adverse environmental conditions, Smoking, and trauma.
There are several types of adenoma of the salivary glands, each of which has its own characteristics. There are some types of adenomas:
- pleomorphic adenoma (pleomorphic) capable of reaching large sizes, but grows slowly; most often it is adenoma of the parotid gland, which looks like dense node encapsulated with liquid; in large amounts, there is a risk of malignancy;
- basal cell adenoma is plural; the entity concerned is clearly demarcated, dense and homogeneous structure; goes malignant form is very rare;
- sebaceous adenoma has clear boundaries, formed from different cells; adenoma develops without pain; there is a tumor on the buccal mucosa, parotid and submandibular regions;
- canalicular adenoma affects the lining of the cheeks, upper lip, she has clear boundaries; in some cases, necrosis of tissue;
- adenolymphoma and monoformat adenoma is a variant of two similar benign tumors of the salivary gland; they are formed mainly in the parotid gland; these formations contain lymph, are growing very slowly, consist of glandular tissue; such tumors occur painlessly.
There is also adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands, but this is a malignancy characterized by a poor prognosis for the patient.
Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland is the most common benign tumor. She, like other types of adenomas of the salivary gland, slowly growing in size. This is a painless education because of severe symptoms it is not accompanied by.
Usually adenoma is a dense formation, which may be localized in different parts (lips, cheeks, sublingual area, parotid area), often movable. The growth of education, it can turn into malignant form, which is the main danger in this pathology. Malignant tumor and large tumor size are able to affect the facial nerves, resulting in impaired mobility of the face and its asymmetry. For specific localization of education of the patient can be difficult swallowing, as well as several broken speech. Perhaps the appearance of pain in the area of ear, neck, the appearance of some swelling.
In the presence ofthese symptoms should be mandatory to consult a doctor for examination and advice.
To diagnose the educational use ultrasound, which is cancer, determine its localization, and invasion in surrounding tissue. For a more detailed study of the condition of the tumor used computer and magnetic resonance tomography, x-ray and radioisotope study.
Upon detection of a education the patient is prescribed the conduct of various analyses, and sialography (contrast studies of the ducts of the salivary glands). Also, a biopsy, which is identifying the nature of the pathology. Depending on the received results of examination patient is prescribed treatment.
The treatment of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland is performed only surgically. There are several options the surgery for adenoma of the salivary gland. A portion of the breast when operating may be left, but in this case, the possibility of recurrence of the tumor is not excluded. The probability of this is 20-45 %. If the operation is performed with the removal of diseased glands, the risk of relapse is reduced to 1-4 %.
In case of recurrence of the adenoma is likely to appear multiple education, which is quite difficult to remove. In addition, the likelihood of malignancy increases.
Adenoma of the submandibular salivary gland if it goes malignant form, poses a great danger to the patient than adenoma of the parotid gland. The prognosis of such tumors is less favorable. Because the submandibular, sublingual as well as adenoma removed along with the gland. The postoperative period after removal of the adenoma of the salivary gland lasts 7-10 days, after which the patient can remove the stitches.
Treatment of adenoma of the salivary gland folk remedies is not recommended. If the patient believes in its efficacy, to proceed with such treatment with the approval of the attending physician.