Description follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland
Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland is one of the types of neoplasms of the thyroid gland of benign nature.
This formation is very similar to malignant – follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland.
More often this disease affects women middle-aged and elderly, but pathology can occur at any age. Adenoma usually has a rounded shape with clear boundaries. To achieve education capable of considerable size, in which normal activity of the patient difficult. The main danger posed by adenoma of the thyroid gland, is the probability of malignancy (degeneration into malignant form).
Types of adenoma of the thyroid gland
Most of the node formations of the thyroid gland are of benign nature. They can be single or multiple and can be spread on the surface of the body. Consider the main types of adenoma of the thyroid gland.
Plummer syndrome or toxic adenoma of the thyroid is formation may occur due to non-toxic site. This type of adenoma has a rounded or oval shape. Occurs in the form of single or multiple nodular formations, which produce hormones in excess.
Follicular adenoma is often formed at a young age. It arises in the follicular cells. It has a rounded shape in the form of a capsule, which is able to shift with the movement of the larynx. Approximately 10 % of cases of adenoma of this type is transformed into adenocarcinoma. Atypical follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of follicular and proliferating cells. The size of the cytoplasm may be smaller than the cores of cellular structures. This type of education can take on a malignant character.
Papillary adenoma is the formation of such a cyst contains fluid.
Oxyphilic adenoma – the most aggressive type of tumor, in which the risk of malignancy is extremely high.
Oncocytoma adenoma (adenoma cells Hurtle) – usually develops in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. More often affects women aged 20-30 years. Has the appearance of a tumor with minor hemorrhages, reminiscent of cancer.
The causes of the disease
It is believed that the occurrence of thyroid adenoma is associated with increased production of thyroid stimulating hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. The Gaumont not only stimulates increased production of thyroid hormones but is also the cause active reproduction of the cells.
Hypersecretion of this hormone may occur with disruption of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. The result is excessive growth of the tissues of the gland, which gradually grow. In some cases there is a decreased production of thyroid-stimulating hormone, and education decreases over time.
There are also factors that can trigger onset of the disease. These include:
- genetic predisposition;
- hormonal failure in the body;
- the adverse environment and the harmful effects of toxic substances;
- hormonal drugs for a long period of time.
In addition, it was observed that follicular adenoma of the thyroid in women occurs more frequently than men.
Symptoms and diagnosis
In the initial stages of tumor development it is difficult to diagnose. The development of follicular adenomas are asymptomatic. This type of adenoma of the thyroid gland does not produce hormones, so the diagnosis occurs more often with significant educational development when the tumor begins to push on nearby organs. The result is difficulty swallowing and breathing.
Diagnosis of the diseaseoccurs with ultrasonic and cytologic examination. The patient undergoes needle biopsy, which in most cases can be concluded about the nature of the disease. Additionally, conduct a blood test, which allows to detect the level of hormones in the body.
Treatment of pathology
Treatment of follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland is prescribed by a doctor, self-treatment is not recommended. Treatment should be prompt, because reliably distinguish benign from malignant is possible by histological examination after surgery.
Surgery for follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland can be of several types:
- hemithyroidectomy (removal of one lobe of the organ);
- thyroidectomy (total removal of the organ).
Instead of surgery, you may have radioactive iodine treatment or method of destruction.