How to detect cancer?
Today such a disease as cancer is one of the most common causes of deaths of young, energetic people around the world. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that any type of cancer occurs first, without perceptible to the human symptoms and often the disease is diagnosed only at the later stages. This has a direct effect on the treatment and the further prognosis. That is why cancer diagnosis is important.
It has long been known that regular surveys in groups of people with increased risk for development of cancer allow for timely identification and preparation of disease and thus improve the patient's chances of survival.
In medical practice, there is primary and secondary prevention of cancer. Primary prevention is the identification and elimination of factors contributing to the development of malignant tumors.
To carcinogens leading to cancer include Smoking (active and passive), alcohol, hepatitis C virus and, vinyl chloride. Also this can be attributed to hereditary factor, the influence of the external environment, used along with food preservatives, salt, fats, and alcoholic beverages.
Secondary prevention includes early diagnosis of the disease in the asymptomatic phase, to reduce mortality and diseases.
To cure cancer and be able to live a long life, you must know how to identify cancer at the earliest stages of its development. In medical practice there are several widely used methods of diagnostics of malignant diseases:
2) laboratory methods;
3) radiation diagnostics;
4) histological examination;
5) the biomarker;
6) radioisotope method.
Ultrasonic method for diagnosis of cancer gives the most accurate idea of the location of the tumor, its structure and dimensions. By ultrasound you can also perform a biopsy.
A biopsy is taken for any tumor type to determine the type of atypical cells (differentiated, undifferentiated). This tissue is sent for histological examination, where it is examined under a microscope.
Beam diagnostics is performed under ultrasound examination, using x-rays and radiomagnitnyh resonance. There is contrast and contrast method. Easiest identified tumors that grow into the lumen of hollow organs, more difficult tumors, which consist of infiltrates.
The frequently used modalities for the diagnosis of cancer refers to a laboratory method. To do this, the patient takes a blood test and examined for the presence of anemia, leukocytosis or leukopenia. But this survey method is not reliable and is not always indicates the presence of a malignant process in the body. Can also be used for immunodiagnostics of cancer.
Radioisotope method of examination included the diagnosis of malignancy radioisotopes that allow you to set specific to tumor changes. This is due to the fact that in places where there is a tumor, the radioactive phosphorus accumulates more and more slowly excreted than normal tissues.
Tumor markers help to detect abnormalities in the early stages of the formation of malignant tumors in the body. In cancer, tumor markers can be detected in the serum. They are proteins secreted by the tumor. In the normal tumor markers are found in the human body in small quantities, and the formation of cancerous tumors in a particular organ the number is increasing. In order to identify the symptoms of the disease, it is sufficient to take a blood test in the morning on an empty stomach. Also, be aware that the increase in the number of tumor markers is not always the result of malignancy, and canbe the result of the inflammatory process in the body.
To preventive methods of diagnosis and prevention of malignant tumors can be the following methods:
2) the eradication;
4) the use of antioxidants;
8) clinical examination;
9) analysis of prostate antigen;
In various diseases of the digestive system the patient is assigned a esophagogastroduodenoscopy. It needs to be to all people after age 50, especially those who are at risk (hereditary factor). Eradication is the destruction of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which also applies to carcinogens. For this purpose appointed as ascorbic acid, zinc supplements, selenium and estrogen.
The chemoprophylaxis involves the use of natural chemical agents to suppress carcinogenesis in cells prior to their degeneration into malignant tumor. Also a considerable role in cancer prevention is nutrition. Antioxidants help prevent tumor development and degeneration of normal cells into abnormal. Antioxidants are vitamin E, rich in antioxidants practically all vegetables and fruits, and foods with fiber.
Colonoscopy can detect the cancer in patients with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract along the entire colon. This examination is usually carried out after 50 years. During this procedure biopsy tissue for the presence of cancer cells. With colonoscopy seems to parallel the fecal occult blood test (polyps, cancer).
Breast self-exam is the method of prevention of breast cancer. Every woman can hold this examination by yourself at home. Should alert the seal, dents, spots on the breast or discharge from nipple cancer (Paget). Enough to pursue such a diagnosis at least once a month.
Mammography is a breast examination in women with the help of x-rays: this x-raying the breast x-rays, and take a picture. Mammography annually after age 50 or before 50 if this is required.
Clinical research physician is an oncologist at the reception in the clinic. To start to be surveyed should have 20 years at least once a year. Mammography and clinical cancer diagnostics method together give a positive result and the ability to detect cancer at an early stage of development.
Men is the test for prostate specific antigen. During the development of malignant diseases in the blood increases a particular protein. Such a test must pass all men after age 50. It must be remembered that in benign hyperplasia may be a false positive result.
Fibrocolonoscope the study of the colon for cancer by means of a flexible probe connected to the camcorder. On the monitor, the doctor examines the condition of the walls of the colon, which can detect polyps and malignancy. Is this diagnosis in men and women after 50 years at least once in five years.
In addition to all other research methods is also carried out examination of the pelvic organs. Thus determines the deviation in the bladder, uterus, rectum, vagina or other organs. Women have taken the scrape of the mucous of the cervix for precancerous cells. If the human body has HPV, such surveys should be undertaken every year.
Cancer treatment is a holistic methods. Maintreatment is considered a surgical method. It is held at almost all stages of development of malignancy. In addition to surgical removal of the tumor and is added to radiation therapy or chemotherapy. This allows to avoid relapse and to remove the metastases, if any.
To unconventional methods of cancer treatment include folk remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and homeopathy. All of these methods are not guaranteed to heal the patient, but to improve overall health and relieve some symptoms.
Further prognosis depends entirely on when revealed a malignant tumor, what is the structure of the tumor, whether metastasis etc.
It is therefore important time to take all preventive examinations, especially to persons who are at risk for different factors. Early diagnosis of cancer can cure the disease in 80% of cases.