What is basal cell carcinoma?
First of all, I must say that basal cell carcinoma is essentially one of the varieties of skin cancer. It can develop on the face, on his neck, eyelids or nose. Here the cancer cells have a basal origin, and it means that they are located in the deep layers of the skin. It is also important to know that this disease is the most common of all types of skin cancer. And its frequency increases with age. And people who are holders of light skin, they are sick much more often than blacks.
The essence of basal cell carcinoma of skin and its types
The first thing you need to stress that the disease is a tumor of cells that differ mestnoanesteziruyuschim growth. You also need to understand the fact that the human epidermis is composed of several layers, namely bazalnogo, which in turn is its Foundation, because we it to lie down all the other layers. The cells of this layer are only able to divide. Next is squamous layer, followed by a granular layer. And the last is orogovevshi layer.
This tumor is divided into several subspecies, among which you'll find most of the nodular type of basal cell carcinoma. Which in turn represents almost transparent education with prominent blood capillaries. Over time, the center of a tumor is formed in the recess. There are also pigmented basal cell carcinoma, which is very similar to previous species, but it differs by the presence of deposits of brown pigment.
What are the risk factors?
As already mentioned, most often this type of cancer occurs in fair-skinned people, as well as key risk factors can be attributed to sun exposure. That is why it often happens that these tumors arise on the face. Besides, if a person has a weakened immune system due to serious diseases or taking different kinds of medicines, there is also a greater likelihood of development of skin cancer.
But as a result of research of the National Institute of Health in the United States, it was revealed that the Central precipitating factor in the development of this type of cancer is ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, different kinds of artificial light sources can also be a possible cause of development of this disease. These include a Solarium, fluorescent lights, etc. the Place where a person lives, also directly affects the likelihood of developing this type of skin cancer. So, more susceptible inhabitants, a lot of ultraviolet radiation or in areas where there is no excessive radiation contamination. Although a person begins to doses of solar radiation even at an early age, the cancer usually begins to develop after 50. Therefore, from childhood we need to carry out all necessary measures of protection against such radiation.
The symptoms and methods of its diagnostics
As already noted, the tumor from this disease is very often seen in the open areas of the skin, namely the neck, face and even in the scalp region of the head. Also symptoms of this type of cancer directly depends on its subspecies. However, there are some common to all types of manifestations in different phases of development, which include:
- the affected areas have irregular rounded shape;
- the lesions have a soft consistency and a waxy structure;
- education looks very similar to the pearly grain;
- the lesions may bleed;
- there is some soreness;
- and they form a scaly crust.
Very often those entities that are located withinscars after surgery can trigger recurrence of basal cell carcinoma. Also very poorly served treatment of carcinoma in a running state, because in these situations the lesion affects the ears, bone tissue, eyes and even the brain membrane.
If to speak about the diagnosis, then this should be a very qualified specialist-oncologist following the inspection and anamnesis. You also need to do a biopsy with cytological analysis included tissue tumors. So, today there are the following methods of getting rid of basal cell carcinoma:
- the use of radiation therapy;
- removal of carcinoma of the cryogenic method;
- removal with laser;
- therapy photodynamic in nature.
Still to this day the most often in this situation used surgery to get rid of this type of tumor. While radiation therapy was used in all cases when the cancer has formed in various inaccessible parts of the operation, for example, at the corners of the eyes of the patient. But cryogenic method is based on the seconds freezing the tumor with liquid nitrogen. Also today in this area is very popular laser treatment. This method is essentially similar to surgery, but instead of a laser scalpel is used with carbon dioxide.
Thus, it is necessary to summarize that this type of skin cancer like basal cell carcinoma, often begins its development due to exposure to sunlight and radiation. Mostly this disease occurs in older people with white skin. Today successfully used a variety of methods of getting rid of this disease, but the most commonly used method still remains surgery.