What is carcinoma of the kidney?
Carcinoma of the kidney is a fairly common disease, which occupies the tenth place among the total number of malignant tumors. Most often the disease affects urban residents aged 50-70 years. In men, kidney cancer occurs 2 times more often than women.
The basic preconditions for the development of
There are certain risk factors of kidney cancer. The addiction to Smoking raises the risk of cancer in half. Obesity and overweight also increases the risk of kidney cancer. Diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and viral infections contribute to the emergence of carcinoma of the kidney. Heredity and unfavorable working conditions or the environmental conditions play not the last role in the group of risk factors that contribute to the development of cancers of the kidney.
The types of the disease
Among malignant tumors of the kidney, the most common is renal cell cancer. It develops from the epithelium of the kidney (tubules and tributaries). More rare is transitional cell cancer. This carcinoma of the cups and pelvis of the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma is a kidney has a certain classification depending on what type of cells and whether the rate of growth of education. There are 5 main types of carcinoma.
The most common clear cell cancer (about 70-80% of carcinomas of this type). Tissue education include a large number of lipids and the blood vessels.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma occurs less frequently (that's 7-14%). With this type of tumor blood supply is weakened. Education is characterized by a significant increase in simultaneously from multiple foci.
Hromofobnye renal cell cancer is 4-5% the incidence of cancers. This kind of develops from the division of the collecting tubes.
Cancer collecting ducts is 1-2% of cases of carcinoma. Often affects young people. The development of education comes from the medulla of the kidney.
Oncocytomas cancer occurs in about 2-5% of all cancers. He even studied bad enough.
The stage of carcinoma
Kidney cancer also klassificeret the stages of development:
- carcinoma of the kidney stage 1 – the tumor grows outside the kidney, its size up to 4 cm, metastasis has not occurred, lymph nodes are not affected;
- carcinoma of the kidney 2 stage – metastasis not, limfouzly not affected, the tumor is within the kidney, but the extent of its reach more than 7 cm;
- carcinoma of the kidney stage 3 – the size of the carcinoma 4 to 7 cm, but the tumor has invaded neighboring tissues or vessels (this does not violate the limits of the fascia Gerota); distant metastasis did not happen, but one lymph node metastases is detected;
- carcinoma of the kidney stage 4 – characterized by the fact that the tumor has invaded beyond the fascia Gerota; metastasis is quite active.
The risk of carcinoma of the kidney is that in the early stages, when metastasis has not yet occurred, the disease is asymptomatic.
Symptoms appear in later stages of development when the tumor is large. The identification of this disease in the early stages occurs by means of ultrasound, most often when a patient goes with other complaints and diseases. The main symptoms of carcinoma of the kidney that arise in the later stages of the disease:
- hematuria – the appearance of blood in the urine, blood usually occurs rather abruptly in large numbers, possibly with clots;
- pain blunt nature associated with tumor invasion in surrounding organs;
- increased body temperature;
- varicose veins of the spermatic cord;
All these symptoms can accompany the development of the disease. In addition, kidney cancer causes fatigue, anemia, loss of appetite and weight loss.
In addition to carcinoma of the kidney, and perhaps even the occurrence of cancer of the adrenal glands. It manifests itself in the form of hormonal imbalance, there is increased secretion. However, such symptomatology is not present in all cases of disease. Often the symptoms of adrenal carcinomas occur in the later stages of development.
Diagnosis and treatment
A number of diagnostic tests able to accurately diagnose the disease. Often suspected carcinoma of the kidney or adrenal glands occurs after an ultrasound examination. In addition ultrasound is used for diagnostic imaging, angiography, x-ray, contrast urography and biopsy, used to determine the nature of tumors.
A malignant tumor is able to increase the secretion of biologically active substances and hormones. However, after treatment of the tumor, the abnormality is eliminated. Treatment of kidney cancer depends on the stage of the disease, and other factors. The most effective treatment is surgical removal. But it is possible treatment with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and others Often combine several methods at the same time.
The prognosis of carcinoma of the adrenal glands and the kidneys depends on the stage of disease and metastasis. Five-year survival for cancer of the kidney is 40-65%, and in carcinoma of the adrenal gland – about 40%.