What is carcinoma of the prostate?
Carcinoma (cancer) of the prostate is a malignant tumor that develops in the prostate gland (or prostate). A gland located in the pelvic region in men (in women it is not), just below the bladder in front of rectum and surrounds the urethra.
Carcinoma of the prostate is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men living in industrialized countries. In addition, in Russia the number of patients with prostate cancer is growing rapidly every year to 2-2,5% more new cases than in the previous year.
Risk factors for prostate cancer include age, race, and positive family history. The average age of detection of prostate cancer currently is the men at age 71. Most likely to develop prostate cancer men, including blacks, middle-age diseases is lower than of the Caucasian race.
The genetic factor is predominant. It is believed that if prostate cancer was discovered in the immediate family, the risk of other men in the family doubled. Hereditary prostate cancer develops at a younger age, and the results of clinical course and treatment are similar to non-hereditary cases.
An important role in effective treatment have the knowledge about the symptoms of carcinoma of the prostate, the appearance of which should be a signal for an urgent consultation with a urologist.
Signs and symptoms
The most common symptom of carcinoma of the prostate is difficulty urinating and frequent urination. Anyone with these symptoms should see a urologist. Prostate cancer usually develops over a long period of time, thus, are asymptomatic or cause only minor symptoms that resemble the typical symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
That's what can happen when in more advanced cases:
- burning sensation during urination;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- urinary incontinence;
- pain in the lumbar region and perineum;
- the presence of blood in the semen;
- erectile dysfunction;
- pain and rectal bleeding.
The prognosis of carcinoma of the prostate gland is disadvantageous, since patients with enlarged lymph nodes, see swelling of the lower extremities. In men with bone metastases often have symptoms of prostate cancer, such as pain, reducing muscle weakness of the lower extremities, or symptoms of prostate cancer associated with paralysis caused by spinal cord compression.
How is it identified?
The diagnosis of prostate cancer show the same symptoms. The first study of the detection of the disease is a normal palpation of the prostate through the wall rectum. Then the doctor can detect and evaluate iron its irregularity, nodularity of the surface to confirm the diagnosis of cancer.
The principal studies used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to assess the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in most patients, the concentration of a substance increases. It should be emphasized that the concentration of PSA is also increased in many other diseases of the prostate.
At the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is used transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) this method for visualizing the internal structure of the gland (usually the cancer is in the so-called peripheral zone of the gland).
The definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer is made based on the research of biopsy and examination of the material collected under a microscope.
How is it treated?
The choice of treatment dependsby many factors: severity of disease, risk assessment forms, patient's age and expected time of life expectancy. The most common form of the disease acinar carcinoma of the prostate.
Three main ways to treat this cancer:
- surgical treatment consisted of complete removal of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (radical prostatectomy);
- radical radiotherapy external beam prostate;
- radiation therapy involves the insertion of a (temporary or permanent) of a radioactive isotope in the prostate (brachytherapy).
In the case of progressive disease using hormonal dependence of breast cancer, use of hormonal therapy aimed at reducing the effects of androgens on the prostate gland. Other treatments include surgical removal of the testicles or taking medications that inhibit testosterone production in the testes.