Time to recognize and effectively treat prostate cancer?
Carcinoma of the prostate (or prostate cancer) is a malignant neoplasm in men, which causes the death of 50% of all patients in Russia, having cancer. Most often prostate cancer affects men after 60 years.
Doctors all over the world trying to figure out the exact causes of prostate cancer. Some of them States that cancer arises only unhealthy gland with chronic diseases or other abnormalities.
The most frequent precursors of tumors are:
- Prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate, with chronic, blood circulation the gland.
- BPH – benign changes of the prostate, leading to cell growth in the gland which should not be.
- Hormonal disturbances, elevated concentrations of male hormones (dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, Androstenedione), resulting in prostate increases in size and breed cancer cells. Carcinoma of the prostate refers to hormone-dependent tumors.
- Bacteria, in an attack which changes the genetic structure of cell nuclei. This contributes to the emergence and growth of the tumor.
Prostate cancer usually affects older men due to hormonal changes, growth of hormonal levels, in which the number of tumor cells increases rapidly. At risk are men in the blood which is constantly a high level of hormones. Other factors that increase the likelihood of developing prostate cancer are:
- A large amount of fat consumed, red meat.
- Excessive consumption of alcohol, Smoking.
- The lack of movement.
- Work in hazardous industries (with the release of cadmium: in printing presses, welding stations, production of textile, rubber.
- A sexually transmitted infection.
- Irregular sexual life and, consequently, stagnant processes in the prostate.
- Reduced immunity due to chronic diseases, constant stress.
- Infection by certain types of the herpes virus (2 and 5).
- A deficiency of vitamin D.
Carcinoma of the prostate develops very slowly, so the obvious symptoms may not occur for several years. Often the first symptoms are metastases, that is, the defeat of the adjacent organs (pelvic bones, spine, hips, lungs, adrenal glands, liver). This is accompanied by pain in the spine, chest, pelvis. The reason for the occurrence of metastasis in the blood, lymph spread cancer cells throughout the body.
Symptoms of prostate cancer are:
- Frequent urination.
- The pain when urinating.
- Pain in the perineum.
- The pain during intercourse.
- Blood in the urine, semen (in case of defeat of vessels).
- Urinary retention.
- Constipation (if the Mets touched the rectum).
- Dry cough (if the Mets hurt the lungs).
- Jaundice and discomfort in the right hypochondrium (if damaged liver).
- Common cancer intoxication, manifested as weakness, weight loss, pallor.
The appearance of any of the symptoms is reason for referral to a specialist.
There are 4 stages of prostate cancer:
- The tumor size is very small, which it is not visible with ultrasound and not detectable. Signs of the disease there. Elevated levels of prostate specific antigen. The diagnosis can be made based on the analysis of remote adenoma.
- The size of tumors more, but is limited to the gland. The tumor is detectable andvisible with ultrasound. There are difficulties with urination, pain and cramps in the perineum. The diagnosis is made by biopsy.
- The tumour is more prostate begins to affect adjacent organs, primarily the seminal vesicles, the rectum. Broken potency, exacerbated pain, there is blood in the urine.
- Metastases reach distant organs: liver, lungs, bones, lymph nodes. The man is exhausted. Bowel and bladder accompanied by severe pain.
A type of cancer is noninvasive ductal carcinoma of the prostate where the tumor is outside the prostate, that is, is always in 2 stages.
Treatment methods of prostate carcinoma are:
- Operation. The most common method. This removes all the gland, surrounding tissue, if necessary lymph nodes. The operation is usually performed under General anesthesia, duration of surgery for removal of prostate cancer on average is 2-3 hours. If the cancer is detected at 1, 2 stage, with surgery the possibility of complete recovery. Otherwise, you may need chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
- Chemotherapy is the destruction of the cores of the membranes of the cancer cells with toxins (drugs), causing these cells die. Chemotherapy is used in cancer, 3, 4 stages, when metastases are striking in many organs and tissues and the operation will not be able to help. In the early stages chemotherapy is not indicated, as it acts on healthy cells, causing weakness, baldness.
- Radiotherapy – treatment using x-rays. Based on DNA damage of cancer cells. Used when large amounts of tumor. Irradiation of the exposed tumor and lymph nodes. The procedure is painless. Used in the early stages and in later, when operation is no longer possible.
- Brachytherapy is the introduction of radioactive substances into the prostate. When this is irradiated only to the tumor, healthy tissues receive a minimum dose of radiation.
- Drug treatment is aimed at reducing hormone levels and stopping tumor growth and metastasis. Preparations are selected individually depending on the condition and characteristics of the patient. Sometimes this is the only possible method of treating men older than 65 years and patients with stage 4.
- In extreme cases, when surgery is not possible, the medicines do not give the desired result, a surgery to remove the testicles, then the level of hormones is reduced, tumor growth stops. Such operation is very complex psychologically.
- Monoclonal antibodies – latest drugs to develop immunity.
- Virotherapy is one of the new methods of treatment based on the introduction of a virus that destroys cancer cells.
To prevent prostate cancer after the age of 40 should be every six months to be screened at the urologist.
To lead a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the amount of fat consumed, eat foods and vitamins to prevent the appearance and growth of cancer cells. For example, soy products, and thermally processed tomatoes. It is believed that vitamin E for prostate cancer very useful as vitamin D, and selenium. They should take after consulting a doctor.