Carcinoma of the nasopharynx
Carcinoma of the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) is a group of malignant tumors that differ from other types of cancer. Symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and tactics of its treatment.
Why does it appear?
This type of cancer is most common among the representatives of the Mongoloid race, especially in southern China. Scientists cannot reliably determine the causes of carcinoma, but the relationship between risk factors and the development of the disease is traced. In all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma revealed the presence in the body of the virus Epstein-Barr. Risk factors are also considered chronic rhinosinusitis, toxic exposure and genetic predisposition. The link between bad habits such as Smoking and alcohol abuse, and development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is not identified, which is also its difference from other types of cancer.
The most successful treatment of carcinoma in the early stages, but it is not always possible to diagnose the disease during this period. Carcinoma of the nasopharynx has a aggressive course. It can spread very quickly. For example, primary carcinoma of the larynx can penetrate the adjacent anatomical structures, affecting the esophagus, the trachea, causing carcinoma of the tongue.
The symptoms of carcinoma of the nasopharynx at an early stage does not manifest. It all starts with the appearance of abnormal cells in the tissues of the nasopharynx. They actively share, and they formed a tumor. Most often, the growth of tumors occurs in the cranial cavity, and are caused by gradually emerging symptoms. These tumors quickly gives the formation of metastases. They can form in the tissues lying adjacent to the primary tumor, in lymph nodes and in distant organs. During the formation of the primary tumor in the deep divisions of the nasopharynx it bothers the patient most often on the third stage, when the formation of metastases. Carcinoma of the oral cavity reveals itself much earlier, because even a small mass in the mouth right there.
Among the symptoms of carcinoma of the nasopharynx is divided into three groups:
Specific manifestations depend on the location of the tumor, from the direction of its growth. The tumor puts pressure on tissues, vessels, organs located near it.
- Violation of nasal breathing,
- Sore throat not caused by infection
- The availability of education in the nose.
- Hearing loss,
- The pain in my ears,
- A ringing sensation in the ears.
- Speech disorders.
Diagnosis and treatment
There are symptoms that should alert the doctor. Quite often suspected carcinoma appear during his address to the audiologist about the common cold or other trivial reason. If it identifies some of the symptoms or the patient complains to them, then be sure to treat it carefully. If a doctor is something was concerned, most likely he will send the patient for further examination. Do not neglect it.
What should concern:
- Swollen lymph nodes,
- A blocked ear or hearing loss,
- Problems with nasal breathing,
- Double vision.
If the carcinoma in the mouth, the inspection specialist will reveal her presence. The nasopharynx to see without special techniques it is impossible. This applies at the beginning of the pharyngoscope examination (examination using a mirror and flashlight), and fibroscopy (checkupusing a special tube with a light source). The diagnosis is made on the basis of a complex of events. The conclusion of malignancy is made on the basis of biopsy during which a small piece of tissue growths taken for cytological and histological analysis.
As with other cancers, the main treatment is surgery to remove the tumor. For the prevention of recurrence and destroying metastases receive chemotherapy, radiation therapy. In recent years, well-proven method stereotaxically radiosurgery, the main instrument of which is the "Cyber-knife". This method allows to influence the tumor to destroy it without damaging healthy tissue.