One of the types of malignant tumors carcinoma. It affects the epithelial cells located in the skin and internal organs. Developing cancer anywhere in the body. One of the most curable types of cancer is a papillary form. Papillary carcinoma typically is formed from cells of normal tissues. It can represent an isolated cystic formation or multifocal tumor (that is, having several centers of growth).
Most often papillary carcinoma is found in the tissues of the thyroid gland and urinary bladder, although such a tumor may develop in any organs. This type of neoplasm has a low degree of metastasis, slow development and a high degree of izlechivaemosti.
Causes of papillary carcinoma
About the reasons for the development of malignant tumors by far no one can say.
Doctors distinguish risk factors that increase the possibility of this disease in humans. This files most often have noted a genetic predisposition, which is linked to genetic disorders passed on from generation to generation.
Accommodation in bad environmental conditions especially strongly affects the thyroid gland and often causes the appearance of tumors. The deficit of certain substances, poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, living with permanent nervous and physical overload also increase the risk of forming cancer.
Lose thyroid tissue
Papillary thyroid carcinoma develops slowly, so the first stage of the disease are usually no symptoms. If the process is not accompanied by other diseases of the thyroid gland, which disrupted its functions, the first manifestations will seal in the neck and disorders of the voice. Gradually appear and other symptoms of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, which do not differ from the symptoms of many other diseases of this organ.
- The knots or seals on the neck,
- Pain in the neck,
- Swollen lymph nodes neck
- Problems with the voice
- Difficulty during swallowing or breathing.
Don't always have difficulty swallowing or voice problems. The appearance of these symptoms are caused by the location of the tumor. If it is positioned in a way that does not put pressure on the larynx, vocal cords or the nerves, then such problems will not be.
Most often papillary carcinoma forms a single tumor, however, can be and multifocal options, when formed multiple foci. Nodes have a dense structure, they are usually mobile and may be displaced, e.g., during swallowing. Resistant carcinoma becomes when it grows into the surrounding tissue. However, this is not always the case, even metastases for a long time spread to neighboring tissues and organs, limited to nearby lymph nodes. Metastases most often spread it to the lymph nodes and, less frequently, to another part of thyroid gland. Very rare papillary carcinoma of the thyroid metastasizes to the lungs or bones.
Because most often, these tumors do not disturb the function of the body, the symptoms for Hypo - or hyperthyroidism are not observed.
Until nodes are reached 1 cm, to detect them when polerowanie impossible. To diagnose the correct procedure ultrasound, hormonal blood tests and histological analysis of tumor tissues.
Treatment of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is usually operational. Possible to remove the tumor with a plot surrounding tissue or the affected lobe of the organ. However, in most cases, the entire gland is removed and all affected lymph nodes metastases. This is especially true multifocalsclerosing papillary carcinoma, in which there are many foci of the tumor and the tissue of the organ.
In addition to operations can be shown to have radioactive iodine treatment. After treatment, usually required replacement therapy with thyroid hormones. She shown during all life. The prognosis for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma is favorable, in the majority of cases people after surgery live long while maintaining performance.
Papillary carcinoma of the bladder is manifested by three main symptoms:
- Blood in the urine (hematuria),
- Urination disorders,
The first appears hematuria, and it can be seen by eye and identified only with the study under the microscope. The pain starts in the later stages. They can be felt in the pubic area, perineum and even in the lumbosacral spine.
For proper treatment it is important to determine not only the type of tumor, but also its phase. For example, papillary urothelial carcinoma, low-grade slow growing and does not tend to metastasize. When such a tumor is possible to do limb-sparing surgery, adding to her post-operative chemotherapy and treatment with the BCG vaccine. For tumors of high grade malignancy resorted to resection of the bladder or its complete removal.
The prognosis of patients of urothelial cancer depends on the extent of tissue damage, stage of tumor and its differentiation. The best prognosis in patients with high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma of high degree of differentiation. What is the degree of differentiation of tumor cells is lower, the worse the prognosis, as higher the probability of recurrence of the tumor and its metastasis.