Ductal carcinoma of the breast
One of the types of cancer in women ductal carcinoma of the breast. This pathology is quite common in most of the cases in women older than 55 years.
Ductal carcinoma is a tumor arising from uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in the lumens of mammary ducts. The tumor formed from the tissue lining the ducts. There are two variants of this neoplasm: invasive and non-invasive. When non-invasive form of the tumor remains within the milk ducts and other tissues not covered. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast is an aggressive tumor. She, originating in the ducts, spreads and affects the surrounding tissue.
Causes and risk factors
The reasons for the development of ductal carcinoma, like other cancers, are still in the process of learning. At the moment it is definitely possible to talk about precipitating factors, the presence of which significantly increases the risk of vnutriportovaya breast carcinoma.
- Genetic predisposition,
- The individual characteristics of sexual function,
- Cancer history,
- Endocrine and other diseases
- Hormonal therapy
- Adverse environmental impact.
Genetic predisposition usually put on the first place among the precipitating factors. The likelihood of developing cancer is several times higher in cases when it has suffered relatives. The fact that the genes responsible for the development of a certain cancer, can pass from generation to generation. However, the absence of these genes does not guarantee protection from cancer.
Among the individual characteristics of sexual function experts consider the timing of the start and end of the reproductive period, pregnancy and others, these include:
- Early (10-11 years) sexual maturation,
- Late menopause (closer to 60 years)
- No pregnancies,
- Pregnancy after 35 years
- The lack of breastfeeding.
Risk factors for carcinoma include the presence of other tumors, even successfully treated. Particular care specialists relate to the facts of diagnosis of cancer, as the risk of the formation of the same tumor in the other breast is quite large, it can appear in 5-10 and 25 years after successful treatment of primary tumors. Cystic mastopathy, fibroadenoma, reduced thyroid function can also give a boost to the formation of ductal carcinoma.
Accommodation in unfavorable from the environmental point of view areas also increases the risk. Especially dangerous exposure to radioactive substances. A risk factor is considered a hormonal treatment, particularly hormonal contraceptives for several years or hormone therapy taken during menopause if it continues for more than three years.
There are cases when ductal carcinoma occurs without clinical signs. In such cases, it is very important regularly to visit the doctor for preventive examinations, ultrasound or mammography allows to diagnose carcinoma at an early stage.
A woman should be attentive to their health. Especially should pay attention to the changes happening to the skin on the chest, with the outline of the breast.
When to call the doctor:
- Felt tight formation in the mammary gland,
- A skin gland becomes wrinkled, thicker or changes color, it appear ulceration,
- One of the glands changed paths: become more convex or more involved,
- Came embroiled the nipple or areola region,
- Increased the lymph node in the armpit region,
- Appeared pain in the gland or in the lymph node,
- There were discharge from my nipple (OK they can only be in the period of lactation or in the last weeks of pregnancy).
Any of these symptoms should alert. Upon detection of at least one need to go to the doctor and get tested to detect possible cancer pathology.
Treatment should start as soon as possible. His plan and method depend on the localization of the tumor, its prevalence, stage of development and the type of carcinoma.
Most commonly used surgical treatment that gives the best results. As a rule, after surgery, receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Surgery may be a resection of the affected part of the breast or its complete removal. If necessary during surgery can be removed the lymph nodes from the affected side. This reduces the risk of relapse. Also during operation, can set the implant to rectify the defect of the breast.
Radiation and chemotherapy are prescribed to kill cancer cells remaining in the body. This prevents the development of metastases or significantly slows down the pathological processes.
The prognosis of ductal carcinoma of the breast may well be very optimistic. With timely treatment and non-invasive form of treatment success reaches 95%. The best effect of the treatment on the stages that have not yet formed metastases. The forecast the worse the farther metastases from the primary tumor. This means that the process already has spread through the body, and cancer cells can "go to other bodies.
Thus, we should not ignore the deterioration of health or changes in the breast and lymph nodes, because the sooner you start treatment, the more likely its success.