All there is to know about carcinoma of the bladder?
The bladder is included in the genitourinary system man, but for men the body is at greater risk to different kinds of lesions than women. Thus, carcinoma of the bladder in men manifests itself in 4 times more often than female. And while this affliction is typical to older people, aged 40 to 60 years. Very often the beginning of the development of this cancer is associated with such harmful habit as Smoking. Since smokers suffer them as many as six times more often than non-smokers. But it is necessary to consider in more detail all the major predisposing factors to the disease.
That can lead to the development of carcinoma of the bladder?
Naturally, no one single reason that caused this disease. They can be made of different and combined:
- frequent or continuous mechanical effect on the body, in particular it may be a urinary catheter or the exercise of any frequent manipulation of the bladder;
- a strong or permanent influence on the organ of chemical carcinogens, such as nicotine, benzene, or aniline;
- bad heredity;
- different kind of viruses oncogenic, notably when the virus is placed in the genomes of cells and allowing changing the gene that causes cancer;
- in women due to the special anatomical structure, the bladder has a short urethra, which leads to frequent infection of the body. As a result, can begin to develop a tumor.
What are stages and degrees?
Each of the stages of development of this type of cancer and allocates the appropriate stage of disease, namely:
- zero (0) stage is determined at the time when the only found on cancer cells, but they are still on his wall. At the same time, this stage is divided into the zero degree and and is. During stage 0a is beginning to develop non-invasive papillary carcinoma, when the tumor is in the lumen of the body, but it will not grow in its wall and lymph nodes. Stage 0is or in situ indicates no germination of education in the lumen of the body and the outside wall.
- On the 1st stage, the tumor penetrates into the deep layers of the body wall but does not affect the muscle layer.
- On the 2nd stage already affects the muscular layer of urothelial carcinoma but not grow it.
- At the 3rd stage, the tumor grows through the wall of the bladder and reaches its fatty tissue;
- In the fourth stage the tumor involves lymph nodes and other nearby organs metastases.
If you talk about degrees of this type of cancer, that is to say that their is file histologist after examination of the tumor tissues. Thus he compares the tumor tissue with healthy cells of the body. Thus, the degree of tumor increases with a larger number of differences. If a patient has urothelial carcinoma high-grade forecast is not favorable then, that such tumors are very aggressive, and they are able to penetrate deeply into the wall of the body and spread rapidly to the lymph nodes and other organs.
So, the first degree is characterized by the fact that the tumor is almost indistinguishable from healthy cells, which is why it is urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder low grade. In turn, she has great growth and has no tendency to spread. The second degree differs in that the tumor is not similar to healthy cells of the body, and it has been growing faster than the tumor with low degree. But the third degree is very dangerous, because here the tumor leads to a rapidmetastasis and growth.
Classification and treatment
The first step is to emphasise that the defeat of the bladder may be very different in nature. However, in almost all cases, they still have epithelial nature. While this kind of tumor, which in turn can be benign or malignant. At the same time, transitional cell cancer here is 1 common, followed by squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. When choosing a method of treatment it is essential to determine the degree of malignancy of cancer, which we have already mentioned. But there is also the cancer divide and the degree of differentiation (G). So, there is a carcinoma of the bladder g1, which suggests that the tumor is high-grade. There are also urothelial carcinoma of the bladder g2, that is, the tumor is usernotification. Distinguish urothelial carcinoma of the bladder g3, this means that the tumor is low-grade.
If we turn to the treatment of carcinoma of the bladder, as already mentioned, the choice of method here directly depends on the stage of the disease. So, for example, at the zero stage mainly therapy involves microsurgical removal of such tumors. But the first stage is already applied surgical technique, which also may be removed and part of the body. Moreover, the patient can also appoint and chemotherapy.
In the second stage already carried out a partial removal of the bladder together with liposlim that is close to him. Chemotherapy been here longer mandatory. In the third stage, the bladder is removed along with the tissues of the small pelvis and lymph nodes. If the cancer is at stage 4, then do not use any methods aimed at elimination of the tumor, because there is already the likelihood of metastasis to all organs. The patient is administered morphine to eliminate pain syndrome.
But it is best to take simple preventative measures than to deal with this serious illness. In particular, should completely abandon such a bad habit, like Smoking, are not in contact with carcinogenic chemicals. When infection of this organ is necessary to begin appropriate treatment.