Is there any sense in radiotherapy for cancer?
Division of tumours into benign and malignant, curable, aleksashina, operable, etc. due to the tactics of the treatment. For example, benign tumors are treated mainly surgically, precancerous disease – surgery, radiation or drug, malignant neoplasm – all the known Arsenal of therapeutic measures require more complex interventions.
Used in the treatment of cancer radiation is a local therapy. At the modern level of medicine radiation therapy is used in 70% of cases of cancer. Radiation for cancer can be used:
- as an independent or the main method of treatment;
- in combination with surgical interventions;
- in combination with medication;
- as multimodal treatment.
Radiation therapy as a primary treatment
Can be used on a radical program as a symptomatic or palliative treatment. The conditions for such method of treatment are:
- preferred in cosmetic terms, and long-term results comparable to those of other methods of treatment;
- is the only possible treatment of inoperable patients.
Radical treatment implies complete recovery of the patient from cancer. The degree of radiation load in different tumors varies depending on histological structure.
Palliative therapy aimed at the tumor and metastases, but is intended to reduce the number of tumor cells. Used if you cannot use radical treatment in a dose equal to 2/3 cancerocidal.
Symptomatic therapy designed to reduce symptoms of the disease, which can lead to rapid death of the patient. Assuming that it is the only method of treatment used for health reasons if compression syndrome, cerebral edema, acute asphyxia, compression of the spinal cord.
Anti-inflammatory irradiation is used to eliminate inflammatory postoperative complications in the absence of a positive effect of traditional treatment.
Radiation therapy in combination with surgical treatment
Can be used before surgery, during surgery or after it.
Before surgery, radiation is used to reduce the tumor size and metastases. Aimed at improving conditions for performing radical surgery, and reducing the frequency of local recurrence and distant metastasis.
During the operation conducted single irradiation of inoperable tumors or operative field during laparotomy an electron beam at a dose of 20 Gy.
After surgery, radiation will be applied to reduce the biological activity of the remaining tumor cells. Is performed upon detection of histologically proven metastases, lack of radicalism of the surgical intervention, the violation of the principles of elastici.
The use of radiation and drug therapy
The combined use of radiation and chemotherapy leads to the mutual reinforcement of effects of each of the applied methods, creates conditions for prevention of metastases and treatment of hidden cancers.
Provides optimal utilization of surgical, radiation and drug treatment. At the same time can be used radiomodifiers impact.
The principle of radiation therapy – the cure of the tumor with the least trauma to healthy tissue. Is achieved by including in the irradiation zone, the minimum possible volume of tissue, which is enough to eliminate all tumor cells.
Promising is the use of radiomodification.this term is understood the various chemical or physical factors that can change in either direction radiosensitivity of cells. They are directed as cells of the tumor and the healthy cells of the human body. To enhance the radiation effect on the tumor irradiation is used in conjunction with hyperbaric oxygenation atypical cells (oxigenoterapia), electroncapture compounds, low doses (0.1 Gy) radiation (thermoradiotherapy). To protect healthy tissues are used in hypoxic hypoxia (hypoxyradiotherapy), radioprotectors, antioxidants.
Used for irradiation of particles (beta particles, protons, neurons etc.) and photons (gamma and x-radiation).
Is there a cure for breast cancer irradiation?
In the treatment of tumors of the breast used all known methods of treatment. Irradiation in breast cancer in combination with surgical treatment significantly reduces the likelihood of local recurrence.
Preoperative radiation therapy kills immature cells, sclerotium lymphatic vessels and veins, which prevents the re-emergence of the tumor and helps convert unresectable tumors to resectable. Irradiation is carried out on the mammary gland and regional lymph nodes for 5 days with a single dose of 5 Gy.
Radiation after surgery is carried out at a dose of 2 Gy to total focal dose (SOD) 48-50 Oz. Indications:
- the presence of metastases;
- locally common forms of cancer;
- multiple foci in the breast.
As an independent method is used in the following cases:
- contraindications to surgical treatment;
- neoperabelnoy of the tumor;
- edematous-infiltrative form;
- refusal of patient from operation.
In this case, it is applied in usual dose to SOD 60 Gy. To enhance the radiosensitivity of atypical cells used radiomodificators: hyperthermia and drugs.
Unfortunately, radiation therapy is not ideal treatment, as it damages healthy tissue. The effects of radiation in cancer diverse. In the treatment of cancer occur most often erythema and desquamation. A year after the therapy there are rib fractures, pulmonary fibrosis, fibrosis of the gland. In the later stages occur radiation ulcers and osteomyelitis of the ribs.
Radiation treatment for cancer of the uterus
Most appropriate to apply in the treatment of cancer of the uterus a combination of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of the latter similar as in tumors of other localizations. Use standard dose with SOD 50 Gr. Another option is the use of radiation therapy intracavitary gamma-therapy during preoperative preparation. In this case, provided elastichnost surgical intervention and decrease the activity of tumor cells. Conducted 2 sessions with an interval of 7 days with a single dose of 10 Gy. After surgery, the irradiated area of the wound.
Indications for combined treatment:
- low differentiation of the tumor;
- the defeat of the serous membranes;
- spread to the cervix;
- metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes;
- The high activity of the tumor.
As an independent method of radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus is rare. The indications are similar to those in breast cancer, with the exception of infiltrative.
Treatment of lung cancer radiation
Radiation therapy at a distance is the method of choice when metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes, incompletely performed the operation. In this case, irradiate the region of the mediastinum to SOD 50 Gr. In the treatment of primary inoperable patients use preoperative preparation in the form of radiation to focal dose of 40 Gy on the primary lesion and metastases.
Radiation for lung cancer is contraindicated inavailable:
- the collapse of the tumor;
- heavy infections.
Perhaps the use of contact radiation therapy – brachytherapy. Can be used both independently and in conjunction with remote therapy when the tumor in the bronchi and the presence of regional metastases. SOD 42 Gr. Brachytherapy is also used in the case of palliative operations, which have been left portion of the tumor.
Treated if rectal cancer radiation?
The only radical method that can completely get rid of the tumor, is surgical intervention. Which consists in removing all the tumor tissue in a single complex with regional lymph nodes. Chemotherapy and radiation for rectal cancer performed rarely, due to their low efficiency. With the exception of sarcoma, in which treatment use a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.