Oncology: effects of radiation on the body
To combat oncological diseases using different methods of treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery. Exposure of tumor cells in Oncology is a standard procedure done in most cases.
With the help of radiation therapy and ionizing radiation can treat many oncological and non-oncological education. Radiation is carried out using a special apparatus with a radioactive source.
Under the influence of radiation therapy of tumor cells mutate and die in the future. Healthy cells remain unchanged, as they are more resistant to radiation. Gradual accumulation of radioactive substances. By directed full action of the rays on the tumor the tumor breaks down and ceases to grow.
The effect of radiation therapy
Malignant cells respond differently to the effects of radiation therapy, this feature is called radiosensitivity. High sensitivity have Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma and seminoma of the testis. The average sensitivity have cervical cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and bronchus, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Low sensitivity has adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, kidney cancer, liver cancer, cancer of the digestive tract.
Features of treatment
The effect of the use of radiotherapy depends on the radiation resistance of the surrounding tissues and radiosensitivity. To increase sensitivity of the tumor to the effects of radiotherapy and to raise the radioresistance of the healthy tissue by using special tools. Such funds are called radiomodificators (chemotherapy).
Preparation of the patient
Each case requires individual approach to the patient considering the severity of the disease, presence of metastases, etc., In first preparing a topographic map with a designation on it major blood vessels and vital organs. Thereafter, radiation planning for determining the most effective dosage to the malignancy and calculating the dose to healthy cells.
The main aim of radiation therapy is the proper distribution of radioactive substances in the place of the irradiation of the tumor.
The types of radiation therapy
The most common medical practice is teletherapy. The radiation source may be located on the skin or inside the body (in a cavity in the tissue).
In addition, radiation therapy can be different types of radiation:
- gamma-ray therapy;
- proton irradiation;
- irradiation with neutrons;
To increase the load on the tumor and reduce the healthy tissue fails due to counter exposure. For the beams fail in two fields, or rotation (dynamic exposure). Also radiation therapy is with the major factions, minor factions and splitting the dose.
How is radiation therapy?
The procedure of radiation therapy takes place in a dedicated room. The patient does not feel any pain during the session.
Immediately before irradiation the patient is a special provision, which is planned for the map. Protection of surrounding organs and tissues are protected by special blocks. One session takes time from one minute to 5 minutes. While the doctor monitors the patient during the entire procedure from a special room.