How is acute leukemia?
Leukemia (leukaemia) is a disease, colloquially called blood cancer. In leukemia normal hematopoiesis. The body produces immature abnormal cells that are the precursors of leukocytes. They are very active multiply accumulate and hinder the development of normal cells. When the disease develops quickly, it is defined as acute leukemia.
The types of leukemia
Acute leukemia the blood may occur in different forms. It all depends on what cells predominate. If the body produced too many abnormal lymphoblasts, it lymphoblastic leukemia. If dominated by myeloid cells, the leukemia is called myeloid (or nelimfoblastnyh). It is in this form is most common acute leukemia in adults. It accounts for 90% of all cases of acute leukemia in adults. The incidence of acute nelimfoblastnyh leukemia increases with age. The average age when people often get sick, is 63 years of age.
Symptoms of acute leukemia
- The condition of General weakness accompanied by fever (at first it looks like as the flu or common cold).
- Enlargement of the spleen, liver or lymph nodes.
- Pain in the bones.
- Pallor of the skin.
- Bleeding, formation of bruises, spots on the skin red or purple.
- The fall of the immune system, accompanied by frequent infections.
- The weight loss and the steady deterioration of health.
Symptoms can be combined patients different. Most of them caused by impaired hematopoiesis. The excess of abnormal cells is combined with a lack of normal blood cells, which needs to perform its functions. For this reason, functioning normal cells do not do their job. Hence the development of iron deficiency anemia, lack of platelets, leading to bleeding and hemorrhage. It may be small hemorrhages in the skin or mucous membranes, but can be serious nasal or intestinal bleeding.
When myeloid leukemia due to the accumulation of cancer cells greatly increased the spleen, often the same happens with the liver. Lymphoblastic leukemia leads to swollen lymph nodes.
Diagnosis and treatment
If there is the slightest suspicion of leukemia, urgently need to see a doctor. This is especially true of the acute course of the disease. The acute form often develops very rapidly and can quickly lead to very dire consequences.
Suspicion of leukemia the blood of children can occur when performing routine blood test, as children quite regularly tests. And adults immediately go to the doctor when feeling bad child. So children's leukemias are diagnosed at earlier stages.
Normal blood count in leukemia shows a decrease in the level of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, increase or decrease in white blood cells, the appearance of blast cells. If any such deviations are special tests and examinations.
The main method of treatment chemotherapy whose purpose is the destruction of tumor cells. In the first 4-6 weeks of intensive treatment that leads to remission. Then prescribe maintenance therapy, which may continue for 2-3 years.
As a rule, an important part of treatment is getting the appropriate diet. Nutrition in acute leukemia has its own characteristics. It is intended to adjust the metabolism, support the immune system, reduce the manifestations of intoxication, to maintain the body in terms of vitamins.
Products should be rich in iron, cobalt, copper, zinc trace elements necessary for hematopoiesis. They should be greatvitamin C and vitamins of group B. the protein Levels increased up to 120 grams a day, limit fat to 70 grams, carbs to 300. Third of all fats should be vegetable. Salt should be consumed in minimal quantities are limited and the use of liquid. No smoked and grilled dishes. Products need to boil or simmer.
Modern tools allow you to give more optimistic projections for the treatment of acute leukemia than a few decades ago. About half of adults and 80% children have all the chances of sustainable remission and return to normal life.