How to detect leukemia?
Acute leukemia or acute leukemia, constitute such pathological processes, in which there is excessive proliferation of bone marrow cells, they do not have time to differentiate. And as you know, undifferentiated cells are unable to perform their functions. If you do not receive adequate chemotherapy, uncontrolled proliferation leads to the fact that these cells completely replace normal, not only that of Rostock.
Common clinical signs of leukemia
The symptoms of leukemia are determined by two main factors. We are talking about the following:
- the severity of the pathological process in the inhibition of normal hematopoiesis;
- infiltration of undifferentiated hematopoietic cells of various organs, which leads to disturbance of function of an affected organ.
The onset is associated with the appearance of nonspecific symptoms, which complicate the process of diagnosis of hematological malignancies (leukemias are their kind). Therefore, the appearance of the following clinical signs must immediately consult a doctor for qualified help, which includes a thorough examination in order to clarify diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The first clinical manifestations of leukemia may include:
- unexplained increase in body temperature;
- unmotivated weakness;
- increased bleeding;
- expressed and the sudden feeling of physical exhaustion etc.
A person suffering from leukemia, the disease may start with the fact that for a long period of time the temperature remains slightly elevated (subfebrile temperature), appears bleeding gums and easy bruising formation when exposed to a traumatic factor, as well as develop various infectious diseases that often recur. This greatly affects the state of immunity, leading to progression of leukemia. The net result is a vicious circle, supporting the steady worsening of the pathological process.
The emergence of different intensity of uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia), which cannot be explained by other reasons, should guard against acute leukemia. Even to the suspicious features include the long neustanovivshiesya bleeding after dental surgery.
Why appear the main clinical signs
Fever and hemorrhagic manifestations are the two main characteristics that with high probability in the combined appearance might indicate acute leukemia. Their appearance is associated with different pathogenetic mechanisms.
The temperature increase can have two origins. On the one hand, it is possible to explain the frequent accession of various infections, including those caused by opportunistic microorganisms. The decrease in the number of Mature leukocytes in the blood leads to a significant decrease in immunity. In this case, the use of antibiotics (taking into account the sensitivity of microorganisms) allows to reduce the temperature of the body. However, sometimes they are ineffective. Usually this indicates another way of raising the temperature. He is associated with the release of pyrogenic substances by tumor cells. They have a direct influence on thermoregulation center, leading to a change in its installation point.
Hemorrhagic syndrome is associated with toxic damage to the platelets that become functionally defective, and therefore cannot contribute to stop bleeding. Proliferation of cells in the bone marrow, which are the source of tumor Rostock leads tothe development of thrombocytopenia, i.e., low platelet levels in the blood. With the progression of the disease in the pathological process involved and the liver, where the synthesis of major clotting factors. Therefore, increased bleeding of the various tissues is of combined origin.
Other clinical signs of the disease
Signs of leukemia are identified and other clinical manifestations. Usually they do not appear in the early stages, and the progression of pathological changes occurring. These manifestations include:
- the appearance of pain in the bones that are associated with increasing tumor mass, leading to infiltration of the bone tissue;
- refusal of food or a significant loss of appetite due to the development of intoxication on the background of a malignant process;
- reduced weight and significantly reduced the volume of muscle tissue, due to increasing catabolic processes (this is associated with increased cell proliferation of tumor Rostock, which require the presence of large quantities of nutrients and energy), etc.
Also note that the appearance of certain symptoms depends on the histological structure of tumor cells. So, leukemia white blood germ are manifested differently in comparison with hematological malignancies red sprout. Consider in more detail the clinical manifestations, depending on the type of hematological malignancies.
Leukemia of monocytic cells is primarily manifested by the development of leukemic infiltration of the gums. This leads to swelling and redness, which creates prerequisites for the development of ulceration, which would be a risk factor for infection of the oral cavity. Nelimfoblastnyh leukemia lead to the formation of lakemeadow in various organs and tissues, especially the skin. Lakeside represent pockets of deposits of tumor cells. As a rule, outwardly they look green. This color is due to the presence of myeloperoxidase – the enzyme involved in the metabolic processes. Lymphoblastic leukemia can manifest enlargement of the liver and lymph nodes. Myeloid leukemia can lead to the development of thrombosis in different organs with disturbance of microcirculation in them. Against this background, develop infarcts of the heart, lungs, liver and other body.
Thus, on the background of the leukemic lesions of the internal organs may occur disorders of the respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary system, etc.
Differential-diagnostic signs of leukemia
The clinical symptoms stated above, is an occasion for a thorough examination of the patient. The purpose of this diagnostic is to exclude leukemia or to detect it at the earliest possible stage. For this purpose, additional research methods.
The most common is the General clinical analysis of blood which allows to identify a particular kind of hemoblastosis. This analysis determined the increase in the number of cells of a germ, and an increased content of blast cells (precursors). Note that the defeat of the earlier precursors of blood cells leads to the appearance of the larger species of tumor cells. So, with the defeat of myeloid precursor neoplastic process is manifested by the increased number of red blood cells and platelets. In some cases, may be affected by only one type of cells, such as leukocytes or lymphocytes.
The final diagnosis allows to establish a bone marrow biopsy. The resulting material be sure to examine under the microscope, which will allow to identify the specific type of leukemia. This data is necessaryto conduct differential chemotherapeutic treatment, as different cells have different sensitivity to drugs.
In conclusion, acute leukemias are a group of hematological malignancies, i.e. cancer processes of the hematopoietic system. Initial clinical signs are determined by loss functions that are controlled by this type of cells. Gradually, however, the process is progressing, and it affects all the functions assigned to the blood system. Moreover, in pathological the process may involve any organ, as each organ has its blood supply.