Causes of leukemia — details about important
Mutation of only one cell leads to cancer because the cell stops doing what it is intended, but all its descendants divide uncontrollably. When there is a mutation of certain cells of the bone marrow, develops leukemia. Is cancer disease leads to pathological processes not only in blood but in different organs. What are the causes of leukemia?
The reasons and the factors causing disease
There's always some starting point, after which there is a mutation of cells. What can serve as such a starting point?
- Heredity in leukemia one of the most common causes. It is noticed that in families where there were cases of cancer, the risk of developing cancer is much higher. This means that the cells prone to mutations. Such information should not be taken lightly, people at risk need to undergo more frequent examinations in order it was possible to take action.
- Other hereditary diseases. For example, some chromosomal defects, diseases of the immune system often lead to the development of leukemia.
- Viruses. These tiny organisms get everywhere, even inside of cells. Getting into DNA, they cause mutations that can lead to cancer, including the development of leukemia.
- Chemical causes of leukemia of the blood. This food contains many carcinogens, and improper or excessive treatment with antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporins, and evaporation of hazardous chemicals from the surface of furniture, flooring, detergents, tobacco smoke. Many harmful effects brings us unfavorable environmental conditions. These substances can start the mechanisms of cell mutation that leads to leukemia.
- High insolation. Today, for some reason it is fashionable to be very tanned. But this is not a natural state for residents of areas where little sun. In addition, the depletion of the ozone layer of the atmosphere leads to a General increase in the rays of the harmful part of the solar spectrum.
- The effects of radiation. This causes not only leukemia, but also many other cancers. Many studies conducted after the atomic bombings in Japan. It was found that leukemia had developed in those people who were closer to the epicenter of the explosion.
Who most often suffers from leukemia?
These are the two groups of patients: children and the elderly. This age distribution suggests that an important role in the development of the disease play fails immunity. The immunity of these two groups of people more vulnerable. The most common cause of leukemia in children is hereditary: transmitted from generation to generation "problem" in the chromosomes, the violation of DNA. Child leukemia often found in areas where there is a regular release of radioactive substances.
Acute and chronic leukemia
Leukemia, like many other diseases can be acute or chronic. But in this case it is not different shapes, and different types of the disease. Acute leukemia never becomes chronic, and chronic and never acute. More difficult is acute leukemia. He may in short time lead to death. Chronic easier to treat.
Types of leukemia
Types of leukemia secrete depending on which cells have undergone malignant transformation. Cells of the myeloid series are those cells from which Mature neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. As a result of their defeat, there is a shift of the blood formula, and of neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils become too numerous and the number of erythrocytes and thrombocytes decreases. Lymphoid cells are precursors of lymphocytes. When the disease the number of lymphocytes in the blood is high, but its protective function they perform, therefore, the immune system crashes, andfrequent various infectious diseases.
Tumor of myeloid cells:
- Chronic myeloid leukemia,
- Monocytic leukemia (chronic myelomonocytic leukemia),
- Chronic eosinophilic leukemia,
- Essential thrombocythemia,
- Acute myeloblastic leukemia.
Tumors of lymphoid cells:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia,
- Chronic prolimfocitarnaâ,
- Chronic lymphoblastic leukemia.
What is leukemia?
Acute leukemia starts very quickly, symptoms increase rapidly. When chronic, they can be expressed slightly, and the condition worsens gradually, sometimes almost imperceptibly.
The symptoms of leukemia:
- Fatigue, weakness,
- Increased frequency of infectious diseases,
- Excessive sweating, especially during sleep,
- The weight loss and poor appetite,
- Pain in joints and bones
- Chills, fever,
- Bleeding and swelling of the gums,
- The increase in the size and sensitivity of the lymph nodes, liver, spleen,
- Petechia (appearance of red spots under the skin).
The diagnosis is based on patient's complaints, results of blood tests and bone marrow biopsy. Leukemia treatment can be quite successful in most cases. The main time to start.