Methods of removal of melanoma
Melanoma is a malignant tumor that grows quickly and metastasizes. It is vital to diagnose this disease as early as possible, then do not hesitate to remove melanoma (often in the capture section of healthy skin around the tumor).
Before you remove the melanoma to confirm the diagnosis, carry out such activities:
- a thorough physical examination;
- biopsy of the tumors (if possible);
- lymph node biopsy (to determine how managed to spread a malignant process);
- blood tests;
- CT, MRI, x-rays (if necessary).
How to remove the melanoma:
- surgical technique is used;
- used laser.
After removal of a melanoma treatment that reduces the risk of relapse. Doctors also give advice on diet, sleep and rest that you need to follow in order to side effects from this treatment was less painful.
Depending on the location and size of the tumor, its surgical removal is performed under local or General anesthesia. If the melanoma has penetrated to a small depth and is small in size, it is excised by grabbing the edges of 1-2 cm of healthy tissue (to avoid relapse). After this operation the skin is the visible scar.
If the melanoma is large, the tumor is excised along with a large portion of healthy skin. Then the wound is sutured. If necessary, in place of the removed area of the skin is transplanted skin flap from another part of the body of the patient.
If the melanoma is formed on the skin of the finger, held his amputation (in some cases amputation be the whole limb). The indication for amputation of the finger is subungual melanoma. The localization of melanoma on the skin of the genitals or mammary glands may occur the need for amputation.
After surgery to remove melanoma may develop these complications:
- the wound can get infected;
- bleeding may occur;
- after healing wounds on the skin often left disfiguring scars;
- if not all melanoma cells are removed then it can spread to healthy skin areas;
- possible recurrence of melanoma and the appearance of metastases.
Despite the fact that excision of melanoma of the skin is carried out by doctors for more than 100 years, some of them are still ongoing disputes about the boundaries of excision of melanoma. Studies have shown that even excision of the tumor with capture of healthy tissue within 5 cm from the melanoma is not eliminates the likelihood of recurrence and metastasis. Remains an important defect of the skin (especially on exposed skin) that occurs when a wide excision of the melanoma.
Studies have shown that the penetration of melanoma into the skin up to 2 mm is sufficient to capture when the excision of the tumor only 1 cm of healthy skin. But these recommendations are not always met, since the depth of invasion can be reliably identified only after the end of the operation.
Removal with laser
The laser used for the removal of melanoma in those cases when surgical excision of melanoma for some reason impossible. One of the reasons may include older age of patient and presence of comorbidities that surgery can cause serious complications. However, the removal of the melanoma with a laser is possible only if the size of the tumor does not exceed the diameter of 5 mm.
Advantages of laser treatment of melanoma:
- procedure the melanoma removal with a laser is absolutely painless;
- low risk of scarring after removalmalignant neoplasms.
Removal of lymph nodes
When the diagnosis of a malignant tumor before you can treat the melanoma, biopsy of the patrol lymph node (quite often by the time of diagnosis of the tumor malignancy spread to the lymph nodes). In case of positive result a biopsy along with removing the melanoma is lymph node dissection of all lymph nodes that are located near a malignant tumor. If the lymph node biopsy has not confirmed the extension to them of the malignant process, the doctor may decide to remove regional lymph nodes as a preventive measure.
Since melanoma is a very aggressive tumor, it is much easier to prevent its occurrence than to get rid of it. To prevent melanoma, you need to monitor your moles, warts, nevi and birthmarks, preventing them from injury. With the development of changes in the mole (change size, color, shape) you need to go to the doctors and remove it.
It is prohibited to get rid of moles and nevi using folk methods, to cauterize their any substance to, or remove by mechanical means alone. When the first symptoms of development of malignant process should apply to Oncology.