Treatment of metastases in cancer of the thyroid
Metastasis is the spread of a cancerous tumor that arose in one of the organs to other organs. The metastases of thyroid cancer can appear in regional lymph nodes, the bones, internal organs, the brain. Metastases in the thyroid gland are much less common than primary thyroid cancer. Spread cancer cells through the flow of lymph or blood.
In the spread of metastases through the lymph, in the first place, suffer regional lymph nodes located in the lateral triangle of the neck in the jugular depression. Also affected by metastases colatruglio and predgornoye lymph nodes.
When cancer cells spread through the blood metastasis can be affected:
- the liver;
- the brain.
Often suffer from bone: the spine, ribs, pelvis and hips. Symptoms of bone metastases is pain, elevated blood calcium, bone fragility, nausea and vomiting. Metastases to the lungs in humans, there is pain in the chest, there is a dry cough, bloody sputum stands. The appearance of metastases in the liver of the person constantly feels the pressure in his right side, body weight decreases dramatically. When brain metastases in humans often lead to headaches, causeless vomiting occurs, there are neurological symptoms.
Diagnosis of metastasis is made by:
- blood tests;
- ultrasound examination;
- computed tomography;
- radioisotope study.
In cancer of the thyroid is mandatory thyroidectomy (later people a day forced to take hormonal drugs). Metastases after removal of the thyroid gland treated by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery (depending on their localization) of radioactive iodine.
Most metastases of thyroid cancer (in the bones, brain, and other organs) can be treated using the CyberKnife system. Chemotherapy for metastases of the thyroid gland can suppress the growth of cancer cells. A big disadvantage of chemotherapy is the side effects, severity of effects on the body which depends on the type and dose of drug used and the susceptibility of the patient. Radioactive iodine is injected into the body in small doses, after which it accumulates in malignant cells and destroys them.
The method of treatment of metastases depends on the state of health of the patient stage of the malignant process. Often complex treatment, which applies several methods.
In order to prevent occurrence of cancer of the thyroid gland it is necessary to avoid insufficient content of iodine in the body. In most cases, thyroid cancer occurs in those who before were benign neoplasms in the thyroid gland. Early detection and adequate treatment of these neoplasms will help to prevent the malignant form.
To prevent metastasis it's important to undergo regular medical examinations. Thyroid cancer often develops in people who have had radiation exposure (in the treatment of tumors of the head and neck or when living on radiation-contaminated territories). Therefore, people exposed to radiation must be especially careful to monitor your thyroid.