Metastases in the lymph nodes – the first true diagnostic criterion
The lymphatic system is designed to protect the body, and therefore located throughout the country. Lymph nodes are close to each parenchymatous and hollow organs. Lymph nodes are interconnected with vessels on account of circulating lymph formed from the tissue fluid. Lymph bathes all the tissues and organs of the body, including tumors. Malignant tumors are characterized by the peculiarity of their structure – loose structure, but because some of their cells get into the tissue fluid, then they are in the regional lymph nodes.
There are several ways of metastasis of malignant cells, lymphogenous, hematogenous, and joint. Lymphogenous route of metastasis is considered to be the initial, and most evident regional metastases, in contrast to hematogenous, where manifestations of malignant tumors appear in distant organs and tissues. For a more accurate understanding of what constitutes local foci of metastasis in the lymph nodes, it is possible to give an example, a malignant breast tumor can metastasize in close lymph nodes, namely the armpit. Local or regional lymphatic metastasis is the initial stage, the degree of metastasis in the body. After that, the pathological tumor cells overcome the lymphatic barrier and penetrate into the bloodstream of the capillaries, thereby reaching all the organs and tissues of the body.
What determines the metastases in the lymph nodes?
Metastases in the lymph nodes appear because of certain circumstance and factors that need to clarify and distinguish during a diagnostic examination. Based on the factors in the emergence of metastasis, treatment may pursue different goals. The factors that determine the emergence and prevalence of metastases in lymph nodes:
1) the Exact dimensions of the source of tumor cells;
2) the Location of the aforementioned source;
3) the Degree of differentiation of primary malignant tumor;
4) Shape the development of the tumor;
5) Age category of the patient;
6) the Presence of any comorbidities.
Usually drastic therapeutic method is the surgical intervention, the surgeon is obliged to correctly assess the following factors:
1) How deep the tumor has invaded the organ or tissue;
2) the Exact size of the primary tumor;
3) the Number of lymph nodes, which were carried metastases.
Each of the above-mentioned factor plays an important role in the development of cancer, as well as in the appearance of metastasis in lymph nodes. The degree of differentiation of the tumor reports about the aggressiveness of the tumor. According to the classification of tumors it is known that, the lower the degree of differentiation of the tumor, the more aggressive and faster through matasow in the lymph nodes. However, together with the degree of differentiation plays a role and the size of the tumor, it is believed that in comparison to the large high-grade tumors and low-grade little, to fear the first option. The growth form of the tumor also plays an important role in the development of the pathogenesis of the disease. Options the following growth of the tumor: exophytic ( happens in the case of a lesion of a hollow organ, and the tumor is growing into its lumen, blocking the circulation of content) and endophytic or infiltrative ( happens in the case of the defeat of the parenchymatous organ in which the tumor grows in the thickness of the body). Fulminant malignant character has an infiltrative form of tumor growth.
Metastases in the lymph nodes , their frequency of occurrence is largely dependent on the availability ofcomorbidities, the severity of their course, duration. during medical observations, it is noted that the presence of concomitant chronic diseases leading to weakening of the immune system, worsen the situation with the question of metastasis. Age plays an important role in malignant tumors up to 50 years, the percentage of metastases in the lymph nodes, is only 11 %, and after 70 years of 35 %.
Peculiarities of metastasis in lymph nodes
Originally, as you can see simple to the naked eye is the visible enlargement of lymph nodes, which also can be felt with palpation. Usually lymph nodes that are subjected to a visual inspection, are at different levels, namely the cervical, supraclavicular, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes. Normal all lymph nodes should be painless and are not subject to palpation.
The second sign of the presence of a malignant tumor are a significant loss of body weight, there is a continuing General weakness, fatigue. In the conduct of some diagnostic laboratory tests detected anemia, second, third degree. Metastases in the lymph nodes indicate that the tumor started to progress. Upon detection of enlarged lymph nodes should immediately seek professional medical help, but in any case not to self-medicate.
Principles of treatment the place in the lymph nodes
Treatment of metastases in limpose identical, as in the case of primary cancer, that is, surgical intervention, and removal of paragangliomas nodes (the operation is called lymphadenectomy). After surgical removal of somaticheskikh nodes with foci of metastasis, all patients must undergo a mandatory chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The full combination treatment of metastasized lymph nodes is prescribed individually for each patient, and it depends on the degree of malignancy of the tumor, the borders of its prevalence within the lymphatic system.
Usually, in order to prevent the treatment of metastases in the lymph nodes, the surgical removal of a primary tumor, are all close to the regional lymph nodes, and the detection of the affected, surgery is combined with lymphadenectomy, but this applies only to regional lymph nodes. If metastases were found in distant lymph nodes, treatment is performed using radioterapia or recently applied in many clinics, removing with cyber knife, which is radiosurgery, a noninvasive technique.
The successful outcome of the treatment will be only in case if during providesuperior intervention lymphadenectomy will be deleted completely all lymph nodes are susceptible to metastasis. The effect of fixing such a radical operation will have drug therapy ( chemotherapy), which can last for several weeks. Distant metastases in the lymph nodes, which usually appear as a result of penetration of abnormal cells cancer in the blood are destroyed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
To prevent the appearance of malignant neoplasms and their implications metastases, is required annually to undergo regular checkups for early detection of cancer.