What is the tumor marker of the bladder?
Cancer is a disease of malignant nature, which frequently leads to a fatal outcome for the patient. Timely diagnosis of the disease allows to improve the prognosis for the patient and increase his chances of recovery. Cancer of the bladder is one of the varieties of cancer. To detect the disease among other things is used tumor marker for bladder cancer. Tumor markers are substances that are contained in the human body can be detected in blood, urine, etc.). Their presence in the human body at particular concentration may indicate the presence of cancer in a patient.
UBC tumor marker (tumor marker of the bladder) is the antigen of cancer of the bladder. Tumor marker UBC is a fragment of cytokeratins 18 and 8 (proteins that are synthesized by epithelial cells). They are characterized by tissue specificity.
The rate of tumor growth can be determined by identifying fragments of keratin which penetrate the blood of the patient in the process of growth of tumor cells. Reliably determine the presence of cancer in a patient with tumor markers is not possible, however, the probability of the disease is quite high.
Tumor markers of the urogenital system can increase in various benign processes, inflammatory diseases, rheumatic diseases, pregnancy, hepatitis, diabetes, liver cirrhosis and other pathologies and conditions.
The diagnosis of cancer in the value of tumor markers is determined by taking into account their specificity and sensitivity. Specificity is determined by calculating the percentage of negative indicators for analyses in healthy people. Sensitivity is determined by calculating the percentage of positive tests in patients with cancer. However, there is no tumor marker that changes its concentration in the organism only under the influence of the cancer process. Increased concentration of substances in the body can be in other diseases and human conditions. This should be considered when diagnosing cancer.
Cancer of the bladder may be diagnosed when the increase in the synthesis of substances in the urine. The concentration of tumor marker UBC in the urine compared with the concentration of creatinine in the body.
Also, the serum can be used as material for definition of indicators. Blood sampling produce in the morning, before the procedure the patient should not eat. The analysis is carried out radioimmunoassay method. It is important that when conducting analysis of the blood was stored properly. It is desirable that the analysis was conducted not later than 2 hours after blood sampling. Storage of blood should be carried out at low temperature (2-8 0C).
The sensitivity of the tumor markers of UBC patients is 65-85%, while the specificity of this tumor marker 94%.
The rate of bladder tumor markers in the analysis of urine of the patient yavlyaetsya 0,00049 mg/mmol creatinine, and the blood test average is 83 U/L. This is the maximum indicators, which are normal.
The elevated bladder tumor marker can indicate cancer, such as:
- malignant neoplasm of the bladder;
- colorectal cancer;
- cancer of the cervix in women or cancer of the ovaries;
- malignant tumor of the breast;
- cancer of the bronchi, lungs;
- cancer of the kidneys;
- testicular cancer;
- cancer of the pancreas;
- cancer of the liver.
At the same time, other diseases may be the cause of increased performance. Besides evenhealthy people indicators can be enhanced depending on various factors. The detection of fragments of antigens in the body healthy people in the bladder and possibly in healthy people. For the validity of the recommended multiple tests.
After the diagnosis of cancer in patients they prescribe a treatment. The treatment is carried out by various methods. The choice of the methodology is carried out by the attending physician depending on the stage of the disease, its type, localization and size of the tumor, presence of metastases and General condition of the patient.
To assess the effectiveness of treatment and timely detection of recurrence or the formation of metastases in the further identification of tumor markers in the body also carried out. Monitoring of the patient during treatment allows to increase the efficiency and improve the prognosis of patients.