What is the tumor marker HE4?
Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases of our time. Annually in the world dies of a huge number of people from malignant tumors. Timely diagnosis of the malignant process is able to increase the patients ' chances of successful recovery. For early diagnosis of various forms of cancer can be used tumor markers (tumor markers). Are substances that are found in the human body (in blood, plasma, etc.). According to their concentration in liquid media of the organism can assume a malignant process. The HE4 tumor marker used for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in women.
Characterization of tumor markers
The value of tumor markers is determined based on specificity and sensitivity of these antigens. Specificity is the coupling of this antigen with a specific form of cancer, define it as the percentage of negative results in healthy people. Sensitivity is the percentage of positive tests in patients with cancer, i.e., how accurately the tumor marker is able to indicate the presence of cancer.
On the basis of a single analysis diagnosis patients do not put, you need multiple repetition of the analysis and the survey. Of great importance are the tumor markers for monitoring the effectiveness of cancer treatment. If the therapy does not give positive results, then using the analysis of tumor markers can be skorrektirovat treatment method. Relapse prevention is also carried out by using tumor markers. Early detection of metastases will improve the prognosis for patients.
Characterization of tumor marker HE4
There are no tumor markers that alter the concentration of only under the influence of a malignant process. There may be other causes of increased values.
Tumor marker HE4 is a glycoprotein, which belongs to the upper respiratory tract, the pancreas and mainly to reproductive organs. Because the diagnosis of ovarian tumors in women produced by this tumor marker. For other forms of cancer, this tumor marker is not used only for the diagnosis of tumors of the pelvis. In endometriosis, benign tumors and inflammatory diseases of female increase the level of HE4 in the body occurs.
Repetition of deciphering of tumor marker HE4 allows likely to suspect cancer in patients. Although, it should be noted that in comparison with other tumor markers tumor marker HE4 has a very high sensitivity (which is up to 75%) and very good specificity (96 %). For the diagnosis of ovarian cancer can also apply tumor marker CA125, but its sensitivity is far below the sensitivity of tumor marker HE4. It is recommended a joint testing of both tumor markers.
Method of analysis immunochemical. For the analysis take blood from a vein. Special training is not required, but doing the analysis on an empty stomach. You can drink the water. Before analysis, at least 12 hours should not drink alcohol, drugs, Smoking. Increased physical activity, conducting various medical procedures before analysis is also contraindicated. When the date of analysis must take into account the women's menstrual cycle, which affects the result.
The rate of tumor marker HE4 for women of reproductive age and women with menopause varies. For women in premenopausal norm is 70 pmol/l, if the woman is in postmenopause, the normal values of tumor marker HE4 for it to be a concentration of 140 pmol/L.
Transcript of ovarian tumor marker HE4 needsbe performed by a specialist. The transcript is subject to the hormonal condition of the woman, her menstrual cycle and other factors that could affect the results of the analysis.
Based on the obtained results, the doctor recommends further action. Analysis of tumor markers are screening study, whose results should be checked several times with repeated tests and additional research.
If ovarian cancer has already been diagnosed in women earlier, it is of great importance to monitor the condition of the patient has regular conduct of such tests. Depending on what shows tumor marker HE4, the doctor can change the treatment of women, to recommend other methods of treatment of cancer.