Why use different types of tumor markers?
Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases of our time. Because of its prevalence, a huge number of people die each year from malignant tumors. But early diagnosis of cancer greatly increases a person's chances for recovery. To diagnose a malignant process in the early stages of analysis is used for tumor markers (tumor markers). There are different types of tumor markers for diagnosing cancer, each of which is used to detect various forms of cancer. Analysis for tumor markers is used to assess the patient's condition and monitoring changes during treatment.
Characterization of tumor markers
What are tumour markers and they are the norm when conducting analyses? Tumor markers are specific substances contained in the liquid environments of the human body (blood, lymph, etc.). These can be proteins, antigens, enzymes or hormones. If the concentration of these substances in the body is elevated, we can assume the existence of a cancer of a specific organ (depending on the substance the concentration of which deviated from the norm).
Various markers characterize the various tumors. In some cases, multiple markers characterize the same form of cancer, then to improve the reliability of the results of simultaneously performed analysis of several tumor markers. Also, the same tumor marker can indicate several forms of cancer.
The reliability of the tumor markers is determined by several parameters: specificity and sensitivity. Specificity is called the reference tumor marker for this form of cancer, which is trying to identify. It is determined as an indicator of negative responses in healthy patients. Sensitivity is the number of TB cases in relation to the total number of patients with cancer.
In any case, whatever the test results, it is necessary to re-conduct a series of similar analyses. If there is a suspicion of cancer, then the patient is examined separately.
Types of tumor markers
Tumor markers can be of various types. What are tumor markers? These include the following types, indicating the presence of some form of cancer:
- HE4 – indicates ovarian cancer in women (rate of 140 pmol/l);
- CA125 is also used for the detection of ovarian cancer (35 units/ml), but has less sensitivity and specificity compared to HE4;
- sa15-3 tumor marker, indicating the development of breast cancer (rate of 26.9 u/ml);
- sa242 – tumor marker used for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, Oncology, colorectal (normal 0-30 IU/ml);
- PSA is a tumor marker of prostate cancer in men (rate 0-4,0 ng/ml);
- sa19-9 is a tumor marker for pancreatic cancer and stomach (normal to 37 u/ml);
- AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) shows a malignant process of the liver (its norm is 0-10 IU / ml);
- HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a tumor marker, which in combination with AFP marker is used in men for the diagnosis of testicular cancer in men (normal 0-5 IU);
- The NSE (neuro-specific enolase) is a tumor marker of lung cancer, melanoma (norm: 0-10g/l;
- CEA (cancer-embryonic antigen) – a marker at which identification it is necessary to conduct numerous diagnostic tests, because it can indicate the development of lung cancer, bladder, rectum and stomach (normal marker to 5 ng/ml).
Transcript of the testimony
These are the basic types of tumor markers that are used for the diagnosis of cancer of various organs. There are also other substances used as tumor markers. The norm of average performance is indicated,allowed different variances. Because the decryption can only be performed by a specialist, taking into account possible deviations from the norm. A one-time analysis is not considered a significant reason for diagnosis, and is only serious reason for the further examination of the patient in order to exclude a malignant tumor.
What are the tumor markers in the blood and rules the test for tumor markers can be obtained from the doctor. The doctor can more thoroughly explain what can be the specific cause of the increased value of a tumor marker. In some cases the reasons are completely harmless and are a consequence of normal physiological processes in the body (e.g. during pregnancy or during the menopause the rate is exceeded), in other cases higher values are due to harmful habits (Smoking, for example). In addition, the tumor markers can be indicative of serious diseases that are not less than a cancer threat to health and human life.
Analysis for tumor markers – what is it? To diagnose usually venous blood of the patient. Special rules for analysis there, but the patient must adhere to the standard rules.
How to donate blood for tumor markers:
- drinking alcohol and Smoking prior to analysis is not recommended;
- the analysis is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach, the meal should be for 8-12 hours before the blood sampling;
- drinking liquid can be in unlimited quantities;
- from taking medicated drugs and various medical manipulation should be abandoned, and notify your doctor;
- increased physical activity is also not recommended;
- the analysis in women, also take into account the women's menstrual cycle: the analysis is carried out on certain days.
What are the tumor markers to take for prevention, better tell the doctor. Rules testing of all types of tumor markers are the same. All the tests can testify not only about the cancer. A full examination will help to diagnose.