What are the tumor markers of the intestine
Tumor markers are used as substances used for early diagnosis of cancer. They are produced in the human body, but with the development of the malignant process, the concentration of these substances varies greatly. On those changes with analysis evaluation of tumor markers can suggest the presence of malignancy. As tumor markers can be used proteins, hormones, antigens, enzymes person. Different materials indicate different forms of cancer. For the diagnosis can be used several tumor markers that are independent from each other. This greatly increases the effectiveness of the disease. So can be used for different tumor markers of the intestine at the same time.
Description of tumor markers of the intestine
For the diagnosis of bowel cancer can be used various tumor markers for bowel cancer. These include:
- CA 242 is one of the main tumor markers used to detect cancer of the colon and rectum (normal values 0 to 30 IU/ml);
- CA 19.9 is a carbohydrate antigen is another tumor marker used to detect colon cancer, colorectal cancer and other forms of cancer (normal 40 IU/ml);
- CA 72-4 is a tumor marker for colorectal cancer, stomach cancer and colon (normal antigen contained in body is not more than 6.3 IU/ml);
- Tu M2-RK (tumor pyruvate kinase type M2) is highly specific cancer protein, which is used to detect a variety of tumors of malignant nature.
- CEA (cancer-embryonic antigen) – used to detect colorectal cancer, cancer of the large intestine and monitor the condition of patients after therapy, assessment of treatment effectiveness; this antigen is produced in the gastrointestinal tract of the child during pregnancy, in adults, it should not be more than 5 ng/ml.
These are the main tumor markers which pass with bowel cancer or suspected its presence.
Characterization of tumor markers
Any analysis for tumor markers cannot be considered a sufficient reason for setting the patient's diagnosis. Required a series of conducting such tests, to make sure the results are correct. But in addition to Oncology may be other reasons for the increase in the concentration of tumor markers in the patient's body. Because the assays were performed simultaneously on several substances that are independent from each other. This greatly increases the likelihood of reliable detection of malignant process.
Taking into account the specificity (the ability to reliably identify cancer) and sensitivity (probability of detection of cancer tumor markers. When a low level analysis is meaningless too low probability credible answer. Other diseases also may cause increased concentration of certain tumor markers.
What is the tumor marker shows bowel cancer, and what tests are best to take for the prevention of tell the specialist. The combination of several analyses at the same time will allow you to more accurately establish the possible presence of pathology.
There are some recommendations for tests for tumor markers. No matter whether it is tumor marker of the rectum, colon or stomach, the rules are the same. To make the analysis of venous blood of the patient.
The blood needs to be delivered in the morning on an empty stomach. With the last meal should take 8-12 hours. The liquid can be consumed as plain drinking water. Alcohol and Smoking for several days prior to analysis are eliminated.
Medications must be under the strict supervision of a physician, they canto affect the outcome of the tests. Various kinds of medical procedures can also be banned. About all the procedures and any treatment you should inform your doctor prior to blood sampling. Physical activity the patient should also be limited directly before the analyses.
Results should be explained by experienced specialists. The increased value of the tumor marker of the colon, rectum or other markers does not always indicate cancer. The doctor will conduct additional tests, send the patient for endoscopic examination, other laboratory tests and instrumental investigations.
Also cancer of the intestine even in the later stages is not always accompanied by increase of tumor markers is taken into account when interpreting the results. Much more important tumor markers of the intestine have to monitor the condition of the patient for the treatment of cancer.