Tumor markers of pancreatic cancer: value, description
Tumor markers pancreatic to help diagnose and monitor neoplasms. The level of tumor markers is determined in the analysis of blood serum. Tumor markers are specific proteins secreted by the tumor cells (malignant).
Blood tests for tumor markers is used for the following purposes:
- To determine the presence of the tumor. Small amounts of tumor markers can be in the blood of any person. So it's not the presence of markers, and exceeding a certain level.
Elevated levels of tumor markers can be in patients with disease than from cancer. For example, the development of cysts, benign tumors, inflammation, infections. Therefore, the analysis is not the only method of detection of malignant tumors. It is conducted in combination with other diagnostic methods.
- To determine the nature of a developing tumor (benign, malignant).
- To determine the effectiveness of treatment. With this purpose, compare the tests taken prior to treatment and after it.
- To monitor the status of the patient after surgery to remove a tumor or other kind of treatment aimed at early detection of relapse.
- For detecting metastasis of a tumor.
Carcinoma (malignant neoplasm) of the pancreas is one of the most dangerous diseases. The majority of patients (9 of 10) dying during the year after diagnosis. At the time of detection of the disease in 80% of patients already have metastases. The reason is the character of the disease. Often the disease masked by chronic diseases such as cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gallstone disease. It was therefore important as early as possible by using various diagnostic methods to exclude the development of malignant tumors.
Do not be afraid if the doctor offers to take the test for tumor markers. This is not talking about the obligatory presence of a tumor. It is a measure of prevention, precise diagnosis, exclusion of the diagnosis of carcinoma, the early diagnosis of cancer. It is well known that the likelihood of full recovery is higher at times when the establishment of the exact diagnosis at the beginning of the development of the disease (early stage).
The main tumor marker pancreatic cancer is a marker CA 19-9, secreted by the cells of malignant tumors of the gland (carcinoma), tumors of the stomach (rarely), straight, large intestine, liver.
The level of the marker depends on the research method. Therefore, for adequate tracking of the dynamics of the results is recommended to re-pass the tests in the same lab and do research in the same way.
The rate of tumor marker pancreas – up to 10 units per 1 ml. Almost half of the patients with carcinoma of the prostate, the limit is significantly exceeded. The quantitative value of the marker indicates the degree of the disease:
- Level above 1000 units per 1 ml of blood suggests that the malignant process involved lymph nodes. While surgery is possible only in one case out of 20. If the level is less than 1,000 units, half of the patients the tumor can be successfully removed.
- The level of more than 10,000 units per 1 ml of blood is indicative of hematogenous dissemination. That is, the cancer cells penetrated into the blood and shock can hit any organ or tissue. Most commonly affected are the liver.
The probability of relapse with the increase within 7 months after the operation the level of the marker. The high level of the marker may signal the presence of tumors of the pancreas and stomach, liver, biliary tract, gall bladder, rectum.
An ideal tumor marker for pancreas is REA(cancer-embryonic antigen). The norm token to 5-10 ng per ml. the majority of the healthy population level does not exceed 5 ng/ml, 1-5% may be higher. And the probability of a higher level higher in smokers. A level above 20 ng/ml may indicate:
- Cancer of the pancreas.
- Lung cancer.
- Tumors of the liver, bones, ovaries, prostate.
As evidenced by the decrease of tumor markers? After surgery or other treatment the level of tumor markers dropping to normal levels. That is, the reduction shows the success of the treatment.
Analysis for tumor markers used for diagnosis of cancer at different stages and monitoring of the patient after treatment.