What is an osteoma of the frontal sinus?
Osteoma is one of the benign tumors of the skeleton that consists of bone tissue. The formation of osteomas occurs in both adults and children. Even more often the detection of osteomas occur in children. Osteomas can occur as a single or as a multiple phenomenon. Localization of the formations may be different. But one of the most common is osteoma of the frontal sinus. This localization is the most common among the entities of the paranasal sinuses. It is not always the osteoma is diagnosed in a timely manner. Sometimes it is accompanied by severe complications.
Osteoma is a relatively rare tumor formation. This disease usually occurs in adolescence. To a greater extent, the emergence of osteomas exposed men than women. Tumor formation is fairly slow. Most often, the formation of a tumor is painless.
Reliable data on the malignant transformation of osteomas (malignant degeneration of the tumor) no. It is believed that they are benign, no threat to the development of cancer.
Osteoma usually localized on the outer surface of the bone. Osteomas most commonly strike the flat bones of the skull, femur and humerus, and imorove the frontal sinus. Osteoma on the inner surface of the skull bones can cause headache, increased intracranial pressure, impaired memory, seizures.
There are a variety of osteomas, which occur when disease Gardner. In this case, the osteoma of the frontal sinuses arise from two sides. They are characterized by rapid growth. This requires emergency medical intervention. Disease Gardner osteoma of the bone may neighing spine, leg bones, forming local groups.
Not known the reasons for the development of osteomas. But there are some theories about the etiology of these bony tumors. There are following factors, which are assumed to be prerequisites for the formation of osteomas:
- genetic predisposition (the likelihood of transmission of pathology is about 50%);
- congenital malformations to infectious effects on the fetus;
- puncture of the maxillary sinus, frequent development of sinusitis, sinusitis, etc. diseases;
- adverse environmental factors.
None of the suggested factors do not explain completely all cases of disease. But presumably these factors contribute to the emergence of osteomas.
Osteoma can be asymptomatic pathology, which develops absolutely painless. It can grow slowly, does not manifesting itself. The patient can be formed unilateral osteoma, although also, there are bilateral lesions.
With the growth of the tumor begins to show itself, causing various complications. One of the most serious is the violation of view. Osteoma of the right frontal sinus causes loss of vision in the right eye and an osteoma on the left side of the left eye.
As other manifestations of the pathology are:
- severe headaches that are localized in one region of the frontal sinuses;
- the asymmetry of the face;
- violation of the tone of voice;
- the pressure feeling in the frontal region of the forehead, and inside nasal sinuses;
- nasal mucosa becomes dry, which causes frequent infections of the nasopharynx;
- chronic rhinitis not responding to treatment vasoconstrictor drugs.
During a routine examination of the patient to diagnose osteomathe frontal sinus is impossible. For these purposes you need a full examination of the patient. For this purpose, conduct x-ray examination and computed tomography. Osteoma is often detected accidentally while conducting x-ray examination with other pathologies.
Conservative treatment is ineffective in the case of the osteoma. In the absence of symptoms or complications of the disease can be assigned to monitoring the patient's condition.
With the growth of the osteoma, the pressure of the surrounding tissue, complications arise (for example, necrosis or loss of vision) required the removal of osteomas of the frontal sinus. Emergency surgical intervention is required when the tumor is characterized by rapid growth (usually when illness Gardner). The extent of surgery may be different. Most often it is resection.