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Breast cancer: symptoms

Breast cancer is characterized by the appearance of malignant tumors in the mammary glands. Among all malignant tumors in women, breast cancer is one of the leading positions. But the worst thing is that there is a steady trend to growth. The process of developing cancer of the mammary glands occurs on the background of precancerous formations: mastitis, fibroadenoma, etc. How to identify breast cancer?

The main symptoms

Signs of breast cancer are associated, generally, with external changes of the skin, the appearance of seals, discharge, etc. the First symptoms of breast cancer following:

  • probing of breast tissue dense node, limited in mobility;
  • wrinkling or retraction of the skin over the seal;
  • the presence in the armpit the same side of one or more seals;
  • serous or bloody nipple discharge (may also indicate benign tumors).

This is the initial stage of breast cancer. When the process of tumor growth aktiviziruyutsya, the symptoms become much brighter. What is breast cancer in the later stages? Symptoms:

  • flattening of the nipple and areola swelling (symptom Krause);
  • diffuse edema of the tissue (symptom of "lemon peel");
  • deformation of breast tissue;
  • retraction of the skin in the affected area (a symptom of umbilical");
  • retraction of the nipple;
  • metastases in the cross-axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes;
  • distant metastasis.

Pain in breast cancer, as a rule, no.

The causes of breast cancer


  • the tumor Paget (lesion of cancer cells in the nipple and areola).
  • The most important characteristic of malignant tumor is its invasiveness – ability to invade other organs and tissues. Invasive breast cancer is characterized by cancer cells spread outside the ducts or lobules of mammary glands, damage to normal healthy tissues. This form of cancer can be transported through the lymphatic vessels and the bloodstream to other organs of the body. The invasiveness of the tumor affects the prognosis of treatment.

    Diagnosis of breast cancer

    Early detection of the disease is very important for the effectiveness of treatment. Thus, the role of chemotherapy in breast cancer increases in the initial stages.

    Modern methods of diagnosis:

    • a physical examination by a mammologist;
    • x-ray study;
    • Ultrasound;
    • computer diagnostics;
    • biopsy.

    In time to see the first signs of breast cancer, it is necessary periodically to carry out self-examination.