The concept of bowel cancer combined group the number of cancers that are localized in the region of the large intestine in a blind, sigmoid, colon, the colon and rectum. Colorectal cancer in recent years, a serious problem mainly for developed countries: USA, Canada and several European countries. And more and more ill suffering from cancer of the colon (sigmoid) colon, according to the statistics prevailing over the level of cancer of the rectum. The risk of developing colon cancer increases with age and most patients are urban residents 65 years or more. The first symptoms of colon cancer do not show any obvious symptoms. It is possible only to identify the deterioration of General health, reduction of appetite and reduced capacity to work.
Very similar symptoms and risk factors of the disease any kind of cancer of the intestine. To provoke the development of cancer can:
- improper diet (especially excess meat and animal fat in the diet);
- alcohol and Smoking;
- the hereditary factor.
The relationship between the influence of the environmental pollution and ultraviolet irradiation on the development of oncological manifestations of the intestine is not yet established. Therefore, the main means of prevention of this disease is adherence to a healthy diet in the diet, including the consumption of large amounts of fiber and carbohydrates meliorativnykh. This is necessary to expedite the work of the intestine and reduce the concentration of damaging the intestinal wall bile acids.
What is bowel cancer?
- pain in the abdomen is one of early and frequent signs of the disease;
- feeling of incomplete emptying of bowel;
- bowel disorders as constipation, diarrhea and bloating;
- loss of appetite, feeling of heaviness, nausea, vomiting, belching;
- the presence of blood in the feces;
- deterioration of General health (anemia, weakness, weight loss);
- the obvious presence of abdominal tumor on palpation.
How to identify bowel cancer?
- palpation is used in the diagnosis of lesions of the intestines, which allows to determine the localization of the tumor and evaluate its condition and also gives an idea of the degree of involvement of peripheral lymph nodes;
- percussion detection of fluid in the abdominal cavity;
- auscultation sets the degree of obstruction of the colon indicators (splashing, increased peristalsis);
- finger examination is performed in cases of suspected colorectal cancer, and the method allows to detect the tumor of up to 85% of cases (in women, vaginal examination is complemented by research);
- sigmoidoscopy biopsy of tumor tissue, as well as visual assessment of the tumor and its location;
- barium enema to evaluate the localization, size and condition of the tumors, when suspected colon cancer;
- colonoscopy is performed after the barium enema for evaluation of colon tumors (accompanied by biopsy);
- x-ray differential diagnosis of cancer, identification of co-morbidities;
- ultrasound evaluation of the dissemination of lesions in combination with x-ray, computed tomography, laparoscopies and cytoscopy.
Colon cancer: forecast
If bowel cancer is identified early and the disease has not spread beyond the bowel, the chances of survival are 99%. The chances are reduced to 85% if germination occurred in the bowel wall, up to 65% with the defeat of the local lymph nodes and up to 35% during germination of the tumor in distant lymph nodes. And to judge how I live with bowel cancer, should also be based on the characteristics of the disease.
Can be cured if bowel cancer?
bleeding from the rectum, especially in people over 40, require treatment to the doctor. It may be a manifestation of hemorrhoids or fissure in the rectum, but often the bleeding is an early manifestation of cancer.
Comprehensive treatment is primarily based on surgical intervention, accounting for up to 80% of patients. Preoperative radiation therapy increases the effectiveness of treatment and about 70% relapse-free survival. In the third stage of the disease is applied adjuvant chemotherapy and, in the absence of distant metastasis, additionally performed the radiation therapy.
Cytokine therapy is another effective treatment used for the prevention of cancer recurrence the rectum and colon. After surgery this method can significantly reduce the risk of metastases. The combination of chemotherapy and cytokinemia allows to achieve maximum effect.