Symptoms of colon cancer
Colon cancer is a malignant tumor that affected one of the parts of large intestine:
- the cecum;
- anal canal.
Often of colon cancer are found only cancer of the lung, stomach and breast.
For a long time the emergence of malignant tumors in the intestine does not appear. Cancer asymptomatic. The first symptoms appear usually in the later stages and depend on the location of the tumor, type of cancer and the degree of its prevalence.
Common symptoms of colon cancer
These are the features that characterize any malignant tumor. The main symptoms of cancer of the small intestine, stomach, liver, lung and other types of disease at the last stage are the same. Clinic the late stages of colon cancer:
1)Anemia – a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin in the blood. Destructive processes in the large intestine to limit the absorption of iron and vitamin b 12. As a result of disrupted the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Symptoms of anemia:
- headache and frequent dizziness;
- weakness and reduced work capacity;
- dry skin;
- weak nails and brittle hair.
2) Loss of appetite. The development of cancer provokes the mobilization of body reserves. As digestion is a physiological process that requires certain amount of energy. So cancer patients don't want to eat. Is unaware of the refusal of food. Loss of appetite may also occur as a result of chemotherapy.
3) Unexplained weight loss. Violation of digestion, chronic blood loss as a result of disintegration of the tumor, poisoning the cancer cells to other organs leads to the fact that the patient gradually loses weight.
Causes of colon cancer
The development of a malignant tumor in the colon caused by the following factors:
- chronic bowel disease (colorectal polyps, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and others);
- improper diet (excessive meat in the diet, for example);
- heredity (included in the risk group patients, in the family which suffered from colon cancer).
Signs of the disease often is diagnosed in elderly people over 60 years old.
Local symptoms of colon cancer include:
- discomfort in lower abdomen, flatulence, bloating (these sensations indicate the violation of the intestinal microflora);
- unstable stool (diarrhea may alternate with prolonged constipation).
- presence in the stool bloody and slimy impurities (due to the collapse of a malignant tumor and development of erosion);
- painful defecation (due to the germination of cancer in the nerve plexus);
- feeling of incomplete release of the intestine (occurs when the tumor partially blocks the lumen of the intestine);
- ribbon-like character of the feces is the result of tumor spread along the walls of the intestine and contractions).
How to treat bowel cancer?
The main methods of treatment:
- Surgery. Is the most effective way. The volume of operation depends on the state of health of the patient and stage of the disease. The following types of surgery:
a) open surgery (incision on the abdominal wall);
b) laparoscopic surgery (several small incisions in which to insert the manipulators and miniature video camera).
If the tumor invaded lymph nodes, complete lymph node dissection (removal of lymph nodes).
- Chemotherapy. The use of drugs that reduce the likelihood of metastasis, stopping the rapid growththe tumor and reduce its size. Method is used before surgery, after it and as the main method of treatment (when the tumor is inoperable).
- Radiotherapy, or radiation therapy. The use of x-rays that destroy tumor cells. Is applied before and after the surgery, often in combination with chemotherapy.