What are the required tests for cancer of the thyroid gland?
The thyroid gland with the hormone controls the functioning of many systems and organs in the body. Under the influence of various factors is the formation of various pathologies.
Among malignant diseases of the thyroid gland cancer occurs in no more than 1-2 % of cases. This is a fairly rare disease, however, is very dangerous. It is important the timely identification of malignancy education. The question of how to identify thyroid cancer, you should ask the treating physician to whom the patient should immediately contact in case of any suspicion of thyroid cancer.
The types of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland
There are several varieties of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
- Papillary cancer – the most common (70-80% of all thyroid cancer cases). Grows rather slowly, it affects people of any age, usually gives metastases to cervical lymph nodes. Forecast favorable in most cases, even when metastasis may cure.
- Follicular cancer occurs in 10-15% of cases. Metastasis occurs not through the lymph nodes and through blood vessels. To distinguish follicular tumor of benign nature of cancer is impossible to conduct removal and histological examination of the tumor tissues.
- Medullary cancer is diagnosed in 5-10% of cases of malignant tumors. About this tumor is usually evident in the increasing levels of calcitonin. This kind of disease can be inherited, because the detection of this cancer is recommended to conduct genetic testing of all close relatives of the patient to the RET mutation.
- Anaplastic carcinoma is one of the most aggressive tumors. But it occurs quite rarely (less than 2 % of cases of thyroid cancer). The tumor is growing quite rapidly, often affects the elderly.
The clinical picture
Thyroid cancer rarely have symptoms. This happens if the disease is quite progressed. When the tumor reaches a certain size, there is a mechanical influence on the surrounding tissue. As a result, the tumor can be determined by palpation, the patient also feels her presence, which provokes difficulty swallowing, voice changes, hoarseness. You may also experience discomfort or pain in the neck.
The diagnosis of cancer
Laboratory tests when thyroid cancer are not always effective. In the study of hormones, their levels may be normal. PI medullary carcinoma of the calcitonin level may indicate with high probability the presence of a disease. Other laboratory parameters are unable to effectively diagnose cancer.
A tumor in the gland can be detected by ultrasonography, but the nature of this entity is difficult to judge. To dispel doubts, conduct fine-needle aspiration biopsy. But even this analysis does not always guarantee an accurate confirmation of the malignancy of the tumor. Follicular tumor should be removed first, and then you can reliably determine its character. The removal of tissue subjected to histological examination, on the basis of what is prescribed follow-up treatment.