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Testicular cancer. What is it?

A malignant tumor that develops from the male sex glands located in the scrotum, is called testicular cancer. This disease is relatively rare, but patients often meet young men aged 20 to 40 years. According to statistics, testicular cancer in men is diagnosed in 1.5% of all cancers. In the year of incidence is from 3 to 6 persons per each 100 thousand men. There are statistical indicators:

  • only in 3% of cases a two-way process,
  • more than 90% of the diagnosed tumors are called germinogenic, that is epithelium derived from embryonic cells,
  • the malignancy of such tumors is very high: doubling time of the tumor mass can range from 10 to 30 days, and has a worse prognosis embryonal carcinoma of the testis.

The causes of the disease. Risk group

Most often, testicular cancer develops in patients with cryptorchidism (a state of neofuscelia the testicle into the scrotum: then iron remains in the inguinal canal or the abdominal cavity). Men with this diagnosis fall ill ten times more often.

In addition, there are the causes of testicular cancer:

  • unfavorable heredity (we can talk about it, if the grandfather, father or brother suffered a disease),
  • infertility
  • congenital underdevelopment of the testicles or scar the inclusion,
  • unilateral testicular cancer,
  • syndrome Kleinfelter.

All these reasons do not necessarily trigger the development of cancer. Just men of these groups belong to the so-called group of risk.

The main symptoms of testicular cancer

Previously it was thought that this disease, including cancer of the epididymis, may be the result of injury to the glands. To date, a direct relationship is not revealed. While it is true, on the treatment of injury can help identify the tumor's in the early stages of the disease it is asymptomatic.

With the progression of the disease there are complaints of swelling and accidentally discovered a painless education. The condition can worsen feelings of heaviness or dull pain in the abdomen. If the tumor is growing very rapidly, there may be necrosis and hemorrhage.

In addition to these, the main symptoms of testicular cancer in men are:

  • seal or increase in testicle
  • pain in the scrotum,
  • increased production of hormones manifested in the form of breast enlargement, reduced libido, increased hair growth on the face and body.

As the disease progressed, the following symptoms of testicular cancer:

  • when the disease passes into the spermatic cord with closely spaced nerves, a sharp pain,
  • the spread of the tumor leads to compaction and deformation of the egg,
  • pain in other organs during metastasis (spine pain, lungs hemoptysis, shortness of breath, cough).

Methods of diagnosis of testicular cancer

vrachiBecause the main symptoms of testicular cancer are nonspecific, the diagnosis of the disease begins with a survey. In this case, attention is drawn to the presence of cryptorchidism, epididymitis, trauma, the presence of unexplained manifestations such as fever or sudden loss of body weight.

Palpation is then performed from the healthy side to the affected, which is detected painless, but solid tumor. It is believed that all the major growths in the scrotum malignant, therefore, in all cases assigned to the appropriate treatment.

Metastasize to testicular cancer may be hematogenous or lymphokine, with metastases most often strike parabasalia and para-aortic lymph nodes. Hematogenous metastases most often are lung and liver.

Speaking on laboratory studies, it is mandatory performed the following:

  • definitionlevel of a-fetoprotein,
  • determination of the level of ß-human chorionic gonadotropin
  • determination of the level of lactate dehydrogenase.

For the implementation of differential diagnosis of ultrasound study of the scrotum. For final diagnosis performed radical arhitekturnomu of obtaining material for morphological studies. To identify metastasis conduct x-ray computer tomography or MRI of the retroperitoneal space, organs in the abdominal cavity and chest.

The treatment of testicular cancer

Malignant lesions of the testes provide a comprehensive approach to treatment. The best results can be achieved with surgical intervention and such treatments as chemotherapy for cancer of the testicle. At the same time, how effective will be the treatment of testicular cancer depends on many factors:

  • at what stage was the disease is detected,
  • how radically was removed the primary lesion,
  • how well was preoperative irradiation,
  • whether the removal of regional lymph nodes,
  • carried out whether postoperative chemotherapy.

The prognosis and choice of treatment plan depends on the type of tumor identified:

  • seminoma and other germ cell tumors respond best to primary radiation therapy,
  • other types are treated only surgically.

Prevention of testicular cancer

If a man is at risk, it is most important to him should be preventive measures. As family history, belonging to the white race and cryptorchidism are the main risk factors, it is important not to ignore the first symptoms, and the time to seek advice. If in the case of cryptorchidism help of surgical measures, other factors are impossible to prevent, because they are already present at birth and further human behavior are independent.