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Features of diagnostics and treatment of sarcoma of the bone

Bone cancer, like other cancers, is still not fully understood, therefore the mechanisms of formation of this disease is not known. To date, not determined the cause of the tumor, its relationship with the level of physical activity and of the functioning of the bodies as not proven. However, there is a statistic that claims that the risk group includes men below the age of 30. Less common bone cancer found in adults. This type of malignant tumors is characterized by a progressive development, due to the active growth of tissues in young age and early formation of metastases, rapidly spreading to the lungs and liver.

In most cases, the tumor affects the long bones of the legs. Sometimes the occurrence of sarcomas in the flat bones, and lesions of the clavicle and the sternum are very rare.

The symptoms of sarcoma of the bone

simptomy sarkomy kostiEarly stage of the development of sarcoma of bone associated with pain of the affected limb. Bone pain occurs regardless of the level of physical activity, even a full limit load does not bring relief. The character of the pain is gradually changing with the development of sarcoma, ranging from a dull intermittent type. After a while the pain becomes constant in depth. At night it is enhanced, and the intake of painkillers has no effect.

At this stage, under the skin dense swelling, painful on palpation, which has no clear boundaries. You may experience hyperthermia of the skin over the swelling, dilatation of subcutaneous veins, however, externally, the skin has no changes.

The next stage of development of sarcoma of the bone characterized by a disruption of the normal functioning nearest to the affected area of bone joints. At this time the tumor reaches a large size, striking functional cells. In addition, the affected bone becomes extremely fragile, so when one is injured she breaks easily. Often, the injury becomes the cause of treatment in a medical institution as it provokes the acceleration of the pace of development of the tumor.

In addition to the local signs of disease in a number of cases there are symptoms of sarcoma of the bone as the increase in body temperature, nausea, General malaise, weakness, leukocytosis. In rare cases, it may be a fever.
It should be noted that the degree of clinical manifestations of Ewing's sarcoma may have a cyclic character, which can lead to some misconceptions. Pain in this form of the disease has a tendency to periodic enhancement and reduction.

In medical literature there are statistics, according to which half of the patients with bone sarcoma are experiencing symptoms more than three months before diagnosis, leading to serious consequences. So if you experience the above symptoms should immediately go to a specialist for proper diagnosis and timely treatment.

Diagnosis of sarcoma of the bone

diagnostika sarkomy kostiTo put this diagnosis as sarcoma of the bone is required to conduct a range of studies. After an initial examination, the patient must undergo x-ray examination of the bone. Pending the results of the x-rays do not use any physical therapy effects on the inflamed site. Next, to determine the shape of sarcoma is carried out a morphological study by means of a needle soft tissue biopsy. Only after receiving the test results, the puncture specialist can install the histological form of the disease. In addition, in some casesthere is a need for ultrasound, computed tomography, bone marrow biopsy from multiple sites of the bone, angiography, and bone scan, through which can be revealed bone metastases.

The appointment of adequate treatment of sarcoma is possible only after determining the type and stage of the disease, which cannot be set without regard to the presence or absence of metastases and the extent of tumor spread.

Treatment of sarcoma of the bone

In the recent past, doctors saw in amputation of the affected limb only chance of saving the patient's life with bone sarcoma, but even this radical method did not give the desired results. Fortunately, medicine does not stand still. Modern technologies allow to get rid of the affected tissue, preserving the functioning of the limbs. Organ surgery today is widespread. But it is worth noting that the treatment of sarcomas complex and lengthy process that requires comprehensive treatment.

The choice of specific treatment tactics is directly related to histological form of sarcoma. All substandard bone tumors are divided into two types.

The supporting tissue sarcoma:

  • osteosarcoma;
  • chondrosarcoma;
  • angiosarcoma;
  • fibrosarcoma;
  • myosarcoma.

Sarcomas of bone marrow elements:

  • Ewing's sarcoma;
  • reticulosarcoma;
  • lymphosarcoma;
  • multiple myeloma.

When sarcoma arising in the supporting tissue (the most common form of which is osteosarcoma), the main treatment is surgical intervention. In the early stages when the tumor has not yet had time to affect the soft tissue, resorting to segmental savings transactions with a further endoprosthesis that allows you to keep the functionality of the limb. In severe cases, however, required amputation. The exception is the sarcoma of the distal femur of the Department.

lechenie sarkomy kostiSurgery is performed only after a course of chemotherapy, which is aimed at the prevention of metastases. In addition to these methods of treatment can not forget about the medications that slow in the preoperative period, the growth of sarcoma and restoring the body after surgery.

Sarcoma developing from the elements of the bone marrow (in most cases, this Ewing's sarcoma) that requires treatment that combines radiation and chemotherapy. Surgical treatment when the tumor is only necessary in case of relapse or the late stage of the disease. Radiation therapy is fully exposed to the bone was affected, and areas affected by metastases.

It is worth noting the significant role of chemotherapy in the treatment of any form of sarcoma, which is extremely sensitive to the effects of this method. Chemotherapy not only helps to eliminate micrometastases and cure already rozvyvsja metastasis, but also contributes to considerable reduction of tumor size. In addition, the response of tumors to a specific combination of chemotherapy drugs allows to select the most effective a component diagram for the postoperative treatment period.

Relapse prevention

Insidious oncological disease is a high risk of relapse. In addition, the high rate of metastasis may impede the speedy recovery of the patient. Therefore, after the treatment the patient will need regular monitoring by an oncologist. The frequency of inspections will depend on the severity of the disease. Control tests will include research methods such as MRI of the affected bone, chest x-ray, osteoscintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

Today is understudied naturemalignant tumors, therefore, not identified methods of prevention of sarcoma of the bone. Habits, nutrition and lifestyle do not affect the possibility of recurrence of sarcoma.

But we should remember that in the modern world bone sarcoma – diagnosis, not a sentence. Attention to health, responsible approach to treatment, effective rehabilitation and the right attitude will help to cope with any disease. Be healthy!