One of the types of benign tumor is a glandular-villous polyp and resembles in appearance to cauliflower. This is a villous adenoma. This tumor is often located on a broad base, sometimes it has no clear form, as it were, spreading across the surface. In most cases (80%) adenoma located in the rectum, it can also be formed in the caecum, transverse and ascending colon and in the sigmoid colon.
Features of villous adenoma
Form of tumor are round or slightly elongated, it has a reddish-pink color and velvety surface, which consists of very small papillae, fine. The consistency of this neoplasm is soft, palpation adenoma is easily moved.
The distribution of villous adenomas can be nodal or creeping. Nodular form takes less space, creeping adenoma can affect quite large areas of the mucous membrane of the rectum. In this case, the mucosa around the adenoma remains in good condition, however, the boundary between the healthy tissue and the tumor may be hard to see, as villous adenoma has a pale color, especially if it's creeping form.
The surface of the adenoma is very sensitive and bleeds at the slightest concern. Another distinctive feature of abundant production of mucus, which is secreted in the intestines and present in feces.
Histological analysis of tissues may be detected by one of several types of villous adenoma:
- adenoma, consisting of villous polyps, subject to changes
- proliferating tumor, that is, robust growth,
- malignities adenoma, that is able to malignant changes.
How to manifest?
Symptoms are manifested in accordance with the characteristics of the tumor. Characteristic manifestations is mucus and blood in the feces. Mucus can be very abundant, especially if they accumulate over the tumor, which partially overlaps the exit of the rectum. Is often diarrhea. Because of the constant bleeding of the tumor gradually developed anemia and accompanying symptoms are: weakness, paleness of the skin. The soreness due to the fact that adenoma may lead to impaired patency of the intestine.
With increasing tumor size, it can cause patients feeling of heaviness or pressure in the rectum closest to the anus. Sometimes after defecation there is a feeling of a foreign body. The intestine becomes unstable, alternating cases of constipation and diarrhea.
If the tumor is located in the distal part of the colon, it may fall out. Often the dropped plot easily reduce back on its own or with your fingers. If this fails, then he needs immediate surgery.
- The breach of the intestine,
- Mucus and blood in the feces,
- Abdominal pain,
- A sensation of pressure in the anal area,
- Loss of the tumor.
The diagnosis is based on x-ray examination, colonoscopy and biopsy. The reason for survey is getting a large amount of mucus released from the rectum, blood streaks. Sometimes such obvious signs there, but in the clinical examination can be detected by the occult blood in the intestines, which is alarming in terms of the formation of tumors, and gives rise to further diagnostic procedures.
Colonoscopy allows to examine the status of the colon, polyps, ulcerations, deformity of the lumen. If these signs are combined with an increased risk of bleeding, assign a biopsy. Take for histological analysis, pieces of the tumor and determine the featurescells of which it is composed. This analysis allows us to determine the signs and degrees of malignancy.
In the absence of signs of malignancy villous adenoma removed in the process of endoscopic surgery with the exception of large tumors that have to be eliminated through a surgical operation. The detection of malignancy of adenoma is necessary to do a resection of the colon to reduce the probability that tumor cells will remain and continue to form new adenoma.