What tests need to pass for suspected cancer?
Cancer is very dangerous disease that can for a few months to kill a young healthy active person. The risk of cancer is in the initial stage it can develop without symptoms or the symptoms may be too General to a layman might suspect cancer. In this case, the 0-th, 1st and 2nd stages of identifying a malignant process help tests and instrumental methods of research.
The best way to diagnose cancer at early stages – regular check-UPS by qualified doctors.
In case of alarming symptoms should consult a doctor physician. The doctor will examine and, depending on the complaints and symptoms, will appoint the necessary tests and research.
Methods of diagnosis of oncological diseases
Diagnosis of cancer is divided into:
- radiation diagnostics, which uses ultrasound, x-rays, radiomagnitnyh resonance (x-ray diagnosis allows to determine the localization of tumors, their size, contours and the presence of inclusions;
- laboratory diagnosis (does not give accurate results, because deviations from norms determined by laboratory methods, which are characteristic for malignant neoplasms);
- radioisotope diagnostics (with the help of this diagnostic identifies violations that are characteristic of specific types of tumors, such as thyroid nodules);
- endoscopic diagnostics – cytoscopy, laparoscopy, colonoscopy, gastroscopy (with the help of endoscopic diagnostic tests the condition of the mucous membranes of the internal organs, is the taking of tissue for biopsy);
- biopsy allows to confirm the presence of malignant cells selected from the cancer).
If you any complaints on the overall health doctor prescribes a General analysis of blood (from the finger). In the presence in the body of the inflammatory process observed increase in leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The hemoglobin level for cancer is usually reduced. However, this does not mean that the body has begun cancer process, it simply indicates the presence of health problems and the need for further detailed examination.
General clinical analysis of urine will show the state of genitourinary system man, the density of the urine would indicate kidney function, sugar or acetone in the urine will indicate the development of diabetes, etc.
Consider what tests for cancer:
- tests for tumor markers;
- fecal occult blood test;
The tumor markers (or antigens) are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. For the analysis take blood from a vein (in the morning on an empty stomach). Tumor markers in small numbers are always contained in human blood, and their number can be increased with background diseases (even when cold). In addition, the number of antigens increases during pregnancy. So do not despair, seeing that the blood levels of the tumor markers above normal: to continue the survey further.
For different forms of cancer have their tumor markers. Quite a lot of them, here are some of them:
- if you suspect ovarian cancer will carry out the analysis for tumor markers HE4;
- for the prevention of prostate cancer annually conduct analysis for the tumor marker PSA;
- cancer of the stomach and of the lungs revealed using the tumor marker CA 72-4;
- cancer of the liver, intestine, pancreas or stomach detected with tumor marker CA 19-9;
- the initial stage of lung cancer or bladder can be analyzed for tumor markers of CYFRA 21-1;
- antigen CEA is used to determine the presence in the body of a number of different cancerous tumors(gastric, colorectal, uterine, ovarian, lung, prostate, and breast);
- for liver cancer or liver metastases, and cancer of the testicles or ovaries may indicate an increased level of tumor marker enzyme (in addition, elevated levels of this tumor marker can be a symptom of hepatitis or cirrhosis);
- if you suspect lymphoma, lymphocytic leukemia or multiple myeloma by measuring the levels of tumor marker B-2-MG (but also its high level indicates renal failure);
- bladder cancer can be diagnosed through the analysis on the tumor marker CA-242.
Stool for hidden blood are recommended annually to do people older than 50 years. Small, affordable definition, only in the laboratory, the amount of blood in the stool may indicate the tumors rectum or colon.
Smears for Cytology is recommended every year to take the women sexually active. This analysis allows to diagnose precancerous conditions of the cervix.
Instrumental methods of research
Standard instrumental examinations during a medical examination are:
- fluoroscopy, which allows not only to identify tuberculosis and diseases of the pleura, but also of the tumor;
- ultrasound which will show any tumors and cysts in the internal organs;
- an electrocardiogram will tell about whether the heart is working;
When cancer is suspected, specific authority to conduct such tests:
Colonoscopy is done using a colonoscope. The aim of the study is to identify pre-cancerous formations throughout the colon. At the end of the colonoscope are surgical instruments with which biopsies are performed.
Fibrocolonoscopy is a research that is prescribed for suspected colon cancer. During this examination uses a probe with a lens and light source at the end. The probe is inserted through the anus into the rectum and then pushed into the colon. This examination allows us to detect polyps and cancer or a precancerous condition.
A mammogram will show growths in the breast. During this examination, the breast placed between the plates and x-raying x-rays. Women after 40 years should undergo mammography every year. An extraordinary picture of the breast need to do if you find her seal.
Dermatoscopy is performed, if the body of a lot of moles to determine the nature of these entities. This study examined the mole with a special camera Dermatoscope, which conducts the automatic registration of all parameters of the mole and may increase the resulting image from 20 to 800 times. With Dermoscopy nevus not damaged. Used in the diagnosis of skin cancer.
MRI provides images of the organ being examined in all projections and with high accuracy to differentiate the tumor from the surrounding tissue. This method has only two drawbacks – high cost and the impossibility of its application, if the patient has a ferromagnetic implant.
Methods of early diagnosis of cancer and its treatment are constantly evolving and becoming more accessible. One analysis tool or diagnostic method is able to accurately confirm or refute the presence in the body of the malignant process does not exist. Despite the progress in modern medicine, malignant processes are very often detected already in the final stages.