Cancer...was it possible to notice it before?
Most cancers are diagnosed at the third and fourth stages. Sometimes it is late. The tumor becomes inoperable or has time to metastasize. Prognosis depends on the timeliness of detection. And often life depends on it. How to diagnose cancer? Is it possible to recognize it in the beginning?
Results of complete blood count may be slightly different from the norm in the second and subsequent stages of cancer. The cancer may be elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Several hemoglobin decreased in cancer. But anemia is a concomitant symptom of many diseases. It is also recommended to check
- prothrombin index;
- ALT and AST;
- blood coagulation system;
- alkaline phosphatase.
To detect cancer in the early stages of modern medicine are special tumor markers. Are substances produced by cells of various tumors. Every cancer education produces a particular protein. It differs from normal elements produced by the cells of the body. Either in functionality or by number.
Separately give up tumor markers to determine cancer of the pancreas, lung, stomach, liver, etc. But the cost of such analyses is quite high. In addition, the result does not give a precise answer. The marker may respond to simple inflammation, heart failure, hepatitis, ulcers, pancreatitis, etc.
However, the level of such examinations is constantly increasing. There are tumor markers, which almost certainly indicates cancer. If the performance of a specific antigen of an organ is exceeded, then you need to pass additional tests.
How is the blood sampling for tumor markers?
1. On an empty stomach. For eight hours before the test can not eat it.
2. For weeks before analysis is not to drink alcohol.
3. During the month before testing not to take drugs (this point should be clarified with your doctor before taking a specific tumor marker).
4. Within the hour you can't smoke.
5. Blood sampling is performed from a vein in the supine position or sitting.
Patients who underwent complete cancer treatment, must take the tumor markers every three to four months.
Examination of risk groups
Those who are at risk, responsibility and to be screened regularly. It
- heavy smokers;
- patients in whom the parents (one or both) was sick with cancer;
- people who were exposed to radiation;
- working in hazardous industries (chemicals, in conditions of high smoke).
Women are recommended to take a smear on flora, check out the chest by palpation. After eighteen years – to do a breast ultrasound after thirty-five mammograms.
Men after forty-five years once a year is recommended transrectal ultrasound (examination of the prostate through the rectum) and tests for tumor markers of prostate cancer.
All people after eighteen years to do x-rays every year. Smokers are advised radiograph, and microscopic examination of sputum. If your health is alarming, every two years you need to do a CT scan (all).
Usually, early cancer does not manifest itself. When the tumor enlarges, it can grow into blood vessels compress the nerve endings. Disrupted individual organs, pain, bleeding.
In cancer can experience the following symptoms:
- long not healing wounds and ulcers;
- strange discharge or bleeding;
- changethe size, shape, color, moles, warts;
- the appearance of seals on the body, lumps;
- shortness of breath, hoarseness, prolonged cough;
- indigestion, unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite;
- frequent headaches, pain in bones and joints;
- unexplained weakness, fatigue, sweating, dizziness;
- subfebrile body temperature;
- tingling pain and sensation of foreign object when swallowing;
- swollen lymph nodes in armpits, neck or groin;
- frequent infectious disease;
- cracks and ulcers on the skin, tongue, gums;
- stool with bloody streaks;
- a feeling of tightness and soreness in the breast, discharge when you cough sputum with bloody streaks;
- of sudden vision loss.
The appearance of one of these signs is a reason to go to a specialist. Not necessarily the person diagnosed with cancer. But to ignore such manifestations is impossible.
A diagnosis of cancer in late stages
Diagnostic procedures on the third and fourth stages is extremely important. It is necessary to determine the exact limits of the tumor, to perform its structure, identify the type of cancer, to detect metastases, etc.
- ultrasonic scanning;
- radiomagnitnyh resonance;
More informative in relation to exophytic tumors.
The doctor can perform the structure and size of the tumour and its contours, localization, presence of inclusions.
3. Laboratory diagnosis.
Is optional, but not the main research method. Leukopenia, anemia and leukocytosis are related syndromes of many diseases, not just cancer.
4. Radioisotope diagnostics.
Allows you to perform functional changes throughout the body; disorders of the organs and systems where a localized tumor.
5. Endoscopic diagnosis.
For the analysis we take the tumor tissue.
One of the new methods of research to analyze the response of immunity to some types of cancer.
Morphological confirmation of the malignancy of the tumor.
The scope of research, methods of diagnosis determined by a specialist in each specific situation individually.