Invasive carcinoma of the breast and its treatment
Invasive carcinoma is a group of cancers of the breast. The disease most often affects women after age 50. Invasive carcinoma develops from the epithelial cells of the milk ducts. Tumor invades neighboring tissues, it is an aggressive form of cancer.
Preconditions for the development of
Factors that are prerequisites for the development of invasive carcinoma in women following:
- the absence of pregnancy;
- abnormal genes;
- late pregnancy women (after 30 years);
- early onset of menstruation;
- diabetes mellitus;
- late menopausal women;
- breast cancer in close relatives;
- for hormonal therapy for a long time;
- hormonal contraceptives for more than 10 years.
With age the risk of breast cancer increases. Timely detection of cancer at an early stage is possible with mammography, the quality of which is constantly improving.
For the correct choice of treatment is of great importance the degree of differentiation of breast cancer. The degree of changes diseased cells from normal cells is determined by the degree of differentiation. Cancers of various degrees of malignancy are the following:
- invasive carcinoma with a low degree of differentiation is characterized by a low growth rate of cells that resemble normal cells;
- invasive carcinoma with moderate differentiation of cells is characterized by a more rapid growth rate of the cells compared to the low-grade form of the disease, while cell formation is much less similar to normal;
- invasive carcinoma with a high degree of differentiation is characterized by a very rapid cell growth, which is absolutely not similar to normal cells of the body;
- undifferentiated carcinoma is characterized by a worse prognosis for the patient.
The degree of differentiation shows the probability of the risk of development of invasive cancer in the future. Invasive carcinoma 2 the degree of malignancy (carcinoma mild or moderate) usually combined with low. They are characterized by a small growth of cells.
Quite a long time the symptoms. No sign of the disease is not observed. Often women on their own find a lump in her breast. Invasive ductal carcinoma detected by ultrasound screening or mammogram breast. With further development of the disease symptoms of the tumor.
Women complain of General fatigue, fatigue. There are seals in one or both Breasts. Observed from the nipple discharge that are not related to the pregnancy or breast-feeding. The sizes of the breast can change, can occur deformation. In the area of the areola and nipple can cause ulcers, erosions or scales. The lymph nodes in the armpits and above the collarbone can be increased. 3-4 stages of the disease may occur retraction of the nipple, a change in the color and texture of the skin, which is associated with the germination of education in the skin.
When metastases occur there is pain in the place where there was formation of metastases. This can be liver, brain, bones, limbs. Also, the tumor can grow in the underarm lymph nodes, causing the underarms fairly pronounced swelling. When metastasis to the liver occurs in patient ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity).
If there is a suspicion of invasive carcinoma, then diagnose the patient. Asmethods of examination in the first place, the doctor prescribes ultrasound and mammography, either one or the other. Such studies do not take much time. After carrying out diagnostic studies to clarify the diagnosis assigned a biopsy. To determine the hormonal status of the tumor and its characteristics samples are immunohistochemistry, and subjected to histological examination. Thus is revealed the HER2 status of the tumor.
Without a biopsy of invasive carcinoma of the breast not diagnosed. If the diagnosis is confirmed, to identify the metastasis, the patient is prescribed a CT scan.
Treatment of carcinoma of the
Treatment of invasive carcinoma, nonspecific type depends on many factors. In the choice of therapy takes into account factors such as stage of development of education, HER2 status (HER2 is a protein that is able to influence the growth of cancer cells), hormone tumor growth, degree of malignancy.
When the disease first and second stages the treatment begins with surgery. It is of several types. It can be:
- lumpectomy – sparing operation, which preserves the breast;
- mastectomy is a surgery to remove a mammary gland, fatty tissue containing lymph nodes, as well as, removal of small or large pectoral muscles;
- criminologia – removal through a small incision using a cryoprobe which freezes the tumor and remove.
The prognosis of survival of patients not dependent on surgical intervention. After surgical treatment prescribed radiation therapy. If invasive adenocarcinoma in diameter more than 1 cm after surgery is assigned to the chemotherapy.
Such treatment is in many cases shown and in the third stage of the disease. If the patient the disease is in the fourth stage, the treatment begins with chemotherapy. In conjunction with chemotherapy for maximum effectiveness of treatment can be used and other methods of treatment. For example, immunotherapy, aimed at stimulating the immune system of the patient. Targeted therapy is used in conjunction with chemotherapy for patients with the HER2 gene. It can help slowing tumor growth.