Carcinoma of the liver
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a liver cancer. Among all types of cancer of the body it is found in 90% of cases. Carcinoma of the liver is the fifth incidence of cancer in the world, besides, this disease is the third leading cause of death due to cancer. That is the prognosis of carcinoma of the liver was not optimistic.
Risk factors for development of carcinoma of the liver
Factors that contribute to the emergence of this form of cancer, quite a lot. If the damage of liver cells occurs inflammation, which gives impetus to the regeneration of hepatocytes. In this process, they can degenerate into malignant cells, which form the primary tumor.
A major factor in the emergence of carcinoma of the liver is the hepatitis C and B. Also, the disease often occurs in toxic liver damage.
Such damage can be associated with work in hazardous industries, with alcohol abuse. In addition, the negative effect on the liver having the mycotoxins of fungi of the species Aspergillus, which is present in infected with this fungus foods such as rice, corn, meat of animals who consumed the contaminated wheat. There are other factors causing hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Hepatitis C, B,
- Alcohol abuse,
- Genetic predisposition,
- Different types of cirrhosis,
- Intake of oral contraceptives.
The clinical picture of the disease
The symptoms of carcinoma of the liver can vary greatly.
A small tumor is often detected during ultrasonography of the abdomen, which the patient carries out on another occasion or through screening or clinical examination. Larger tumors cause a sensation of pressure, pain in the upper abdomen. These symptoms can lead the person to the doctor, but patients often delay visiting the doctor until then, until the tumor reaches a large size and start to metastasize.
Possible manifestations of carcinoma of the liver:
- Pain and heaviness in the upper quadrant,
- Early satiety,
- Internal bleeding from the biliary tract,
- Weight loss,
- Pains in the bones,
- Shortness of breath and cough.
In the case of necrosis of the primary tumor often raise the temperature of the body. The presence of tumors and metastases in the body lead to changes in his work. This is due to pressure on adjacent organs and tissue, but also because of its toxic action. Can change hormonal balance, disrupt metabolic processes. In connection with such changes are identified cutaneous manifestations, hypercalcemia, polycythemia, hypoglycemia, can occur sexual problems.
Diagnosis begins with a routine inspection and detection of hepatomegaly (i.e., liver enlargement). Then you need to perform blood tests, both General and specific, for example, for tumor markers. Determine the presence of antigens of HBV/HCV, serum alpha-protein. In diagnosis the important role of ultrasound, CT scan or MRI to see the tumor to evaluate its size, location and condition. A mandatory procedure is a biopsy with histological analysis of tumor tissues.
Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
The disease is difficult to treat. The main reason for this late diagnosis. The most effective method of treatment is considered surgical resection of the liver. However, only 20% of cases of liver cancer are suitable for application of this method. Also treatment possible with the help oforthotopic liver transplantation, chemotherapy.