All there is to know about squamous cell carcinoma
First of all, you need to understand what is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer develops from the squamous cells, which are degenerated by cancer. And due to the fact that many organs of the human body contain this epithelium, this type of cancer affects numerous parts of the body. Also squamous cell malignant tumors are characterized by rapid progression and are highly aggressive. The tumors are growing with great speed over a short period of time can grow deep into the skin and internal organs with epithelium. This cancer is most common in people over 65 years of age and it develops more often in males than in females.
What is the antigen squamous cell carcinoma?
So, squamous cell carcinoma antigen scca is derived from glycoprotein that is ingibitorov family of serine proteases. This protein have a molecular weight of 45-55, kilodalton. In the normal state a little of this antigen can be produced in the epithelium of skin, cervix, anus. But it does not extend into the extracellular space. But the development of such malignant tumors there is an increase in antigen squamous cell carcinoma. It plays a major role in metastasis and invasion of cancer. And the half-life of this protein in the serum is up to 2.2 hours.
In addition, there is a certain dependence of the amount of antigen in the blood from the stage of carcinoma and the tumor size. So, this antigen is elevated in the majority of patients with cervical cancer at various stages. For example, in the first stage of this disease, this marker has a sensitivity of up to 10 percent. At that same rate for stage 4 disease is already as much as 80%. After surgery to remove this kind of tumor increase in the level of this antigen is direct evidence of relapse of the disease.
This type of cancer can begin to develop on many different areas of human skin. But is most commonly found at its open areas. In addition, such skin cancer can also show up on the lower lip. It should be noted that of all cancers of the skin, this type is the most malignant. As already mentioned, largely a disease affecting older people, especially men. According to scientific studies squamous cell skin cancer to a greater extent occurs after any pathological changes on the skin, in particular as a result of scar atrophy and precancerous lesions. In General, two main factors affect the development of this type of tumors, namely:
- burns and other scar tissue damage of a mechanical nature;
- as a result actinic keratosis.
So, for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx is inherent in manifestations, which are mainly associated with the blocking of the lumen of the tumor. These symptoms include difficulty breathing, in which the person so it is difficult to inhale and exhale do. Can cause severe hoarseness of the patient or loss, as there are strong violations of the vocal cords. The patient begins to experience pain syndrome during swallowing. He is strong and dry cough with hemoptysis, and the patient not feeling a foreign object in the throat.
The main manifestations
For a long time, this type of squamous cell carcinoma may even be without any symptoms. And this is very bad for its early diagnosis. But still there are some General symptoms associated with this disease, in particular:
- attacksdry cough that you can't stop even cough medicines;
- starts to cough blood;
- chronic diseases associated with this organ;
- during inspiration the patient has chest pain;
- causeless loss of weight;
- hoarse voice;
- stable high body temperature.
If we talk about squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, the first thing is to say that she in this organ may start to develop due to strong and prolonged infection or irritation of a continuing nature. In the early stages the disease does not manifest itself. But the patient may see blood in the urine, can all be disrupted urinary function, cause pain in the pelvis and General fatigue.
Varieties of squamous cell carcinoma
Here, the first is to say that all differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, grow and progress a bit slower than other squamous cell carcinomas. This form of carcinoma can be divided into two types depending on the level of differentiation of tumor cells. Thus, there is a low and vysokomehanizirovannoe squamous cell carcinoma. What is the degree of differentiation is higher, the more favorable forecast to be patient. Mostly, this cancer develops only on the skin and does not affect other organs. But neorogovevayuschy squamous cell carcinoma, which consists of undifferentiated cells, and it is more malignancy and can quickly metastasize to other organs. This cancer is considered the most difficult of all squamous cell carcinomas, and also it can occur in any organ with the epithelium. If it is about low-grade squamous cell carcinoma, the cancer here is a special spindle-shaped form. And this, in turn, makes it very similar with another malignant tumor, called a sarcoma.