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Causes, symptoms and treatment of tongue cancer

Tongue cancer is a malignant tumor that usually develops from the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane of the tongue. Malignant neoplasms of the tongue are aggressive tumors grow rapidly and metastasize early to lymph nodes and other organs. Mainly tumors of this localization occur in people over the age of 40, men in 5-6 times tongue cancer is more common than in women. The peak incidence occurred in the 60 years.

The disease is common everywhere, but most cases occur in the countries of India and Asia related to the spread of this tradition to chew tonic mixture of tobacco leaves, betel nut, ash, various vegetable oils and spices, which have carcinogenic potential. The symptoms and treatment of tongue cancer is a serious question which everyone should know care about their health.

What causes the appearance of cancer cells in the tongue?

Causes of tongue cancer are very similar to the etiology of tumors of other localizations. The first place among the factors that contribute to the development of the guidance, is given to Smoking tobacco. During the combustion of the contents of the cigarettes is allocated more than 100 powerful carcinogens. Alcohol only multiplies the effect of cigarette smoke on the mucous membrane of the tongue.

kurenieOften, a malignant tumor, localized in the language develops in people who, in their professional activities dealing with such carcinogenic chemicals like asbestos, arsenic, heavy metals, oil products etc.

An important place among the reasons for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue takes a constant mechanical trauma to its mucosa. The factors that most often act as mechanical damage to the language:

  • re biting tongue in the same place;
  • bad treatment of dental fillings;
  • inappropriate size or shape of a dental prosthesis, improper installation;
  • eating very hot food;
  • Tartar, etc.

The scientific work of recent years has proved a clear relationship between the development of malignant tumors of the tongue and chronic persistent viral infection (human papillomavirus, herpes infection, HIV, etc.).

Cancer rarely appears out of nowhere. Usually malignant education for a long time preceded by benign tumors and precancerous conditions.

Precancerous language:

  • chronic erosion or ulcer of the tongue;
  • leukoplakia (cornification of the epithelium of the tongue);
  • lichen planus;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • papilloma;
  • benign language;
  • Bowen's disease.

Types and forms of tongue cancer

Depending on the localization of education release:

  • cancer of the tongue root;
  • cancer lateral surfaces of the tongue (most common);
  • neoplasm of tip of tongue;
  • the defeat of the tongue;
  • cancer of the lower surface of the tongue.

Form of the tumour:

  • in the form of sores;
  • the papillary form;
  • infiltrative tumor;
  • exophytic tumor (oral cavity);
  • endophytic tumor (grows deep into the body).

On histological structure:

  • squamous cell carcinoma (95% of cases);
  • adenocarcinoma.

What is tongue cancer?

In order to suspect this pathology it is necessary to know, how does cancer of the tongue. The clinical picture of a malignant tumor of the tongue can be divided into three successive stages:

  • initial;
  • developed;
  • running.

Symptoms of tongue cancer early stages are virtually absent, and often go unnoticed. The first signs of malignancy there may be papillary growths on the surface of the body, white spots, localized compaction of the fabric or itsredness, development of small non-healing ulcers. Often such changes are localized on the lateral surface of the tongue. In some cases, increased submandibular lymph nodes, there is an unpleasant smell from the mouth. Pain, as a rule, absent.

rak yazykaDiagnosis in this stage of the disease is considered the most favourable, as it allows radical treatment of the tumor, accompanied by high survival rate.

Therefore, the detection of the mouth the above changes (white spots, cracks, seals, papillomas and other symptoms), you need to see a specialist – a therapist, the dentist. The doctor will carry out an initial examination and refer if necessary for further diagnosis to a specialist (oncologist) for a more detailed examination of the oral cavity.

Signs of tongue cancer advanced stages are characterized by different symptomatic, which is difficult to ignore. As a rule, most diagnoses are set at this stage of the guidance. The symptoms depend on the type and shape of the tumor, its localization. Most often, patients complain of:

  • pain language, which has a different character, the intensity and irradiation;
  • increase salivation;
  • putrid smell from the mouth;
  • numbness of the tongue;
  • bleeding from the region of the tumor;
  • pain in the throat when swallowing (this is the main symptom of cancer of the tongue root);
  • difficulty in swallowing, speaking is difficult to pronounce some sounds);
  • intoxication decay products of the tumor (weight loss, exhaustion of the patient);
  • the tumor becomes clearly visible, its shape and size depend on the type of growth.

Ulcerative form

Found in half of the cases of tongue cancer. It is characterized by the presence surrounded by inflammatory roller ulcer surface of the tongue, which is constantly increasing in size. Early in the development of cancerous erosion is absolutely painless, but the growth of the pain syndrome increases and there is a bleeding. Infection cancer defect can mask cancer and complicate its diagnosis.

Nodular form (papillary or exophytic)

The tumor has the form of a growth on the mucous shell of tongue various forms (node, plaques, etc.). With the progression of the process node begins to ulcerate and bleed.

Infiltrative (endophytic)

The tumor grows in the depths of the language, with time it grows and other organs and structures) to form one conglomerate of fixed cancer tissues.

Advanced stage of tongue cancer is characterized by rapid infiltrative growth of the tumor, its decay, the advent of close and distant metastasis to lymph nodes and organs (bone, lung, brain).

How to establish the diagnosis of tongue cancer?

Cancer refers to diseases that need to be morphologically and histologically proven.

To suspect this pathology can during the inspection of the oral cavity (usually with that face dentists on the nature of their activities).

If the dentist is competent, he will direct the patient with a suspected neoplasm of the tongue on inspection to the oncologist.

An accurate diagnosis can be set only on the results of cytological (viewed under a microscope) research of the smears from the surface of suspicious ulcers and histological examination of particles of the tumor, which was obtained by biopsy.

To determine the stage of cancer process that affects the tactics of treatment, carry out ultrasound, radiography, CT, MRI of the abdominal, thoracic cavity, skull, a biopsy of the regional lymph nodes.

Tactics and principles of treatment of tongue cancer

Treatment of tongue cancer conducted combinedmethod:

  • surgical removal of the tumor;
  • radiation therapy;
  • chemotherapy.

Surgical treatment is a different types of resection (removal of part of an organ) of the tongue and region of the mouth. Usually, resection is complemented with the removal of regional lymph nodes. As a single agent surgical treatment is rarely used (only palliation), and in all other cases, complementary pre - or postoperative radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy can be used both as an independent treatment and in combination with other. Chemotherapy is used in treatment of tumors after surgery and radiation therapy for the prevention of recurrence, or palliation.

The prognosis of this disease like tongue cancer depends on the stage of guidance, the malignancy of the tumor, form of growth of the tumors and patient's age. With timely diagnosis (in the initial stages of tumor growth) and radical combined treatment, the survival rate reaches 80%.