What to do with melanoma of the skin?
Melanoma – a form of cancer occurring in about 1% of all diagnosed cases of malignant diseases. The number of people tabolevich of melanoma increases every year. Melanoma is about 10% of all diagnosed tumors of the skin.
How is melanoma?
Melanoma is rarely pigmentless, as it develops from the cells of melanocytes that produce the pigment melanin. Melanoma most often appears on the background of age spots, nevi, moles, freckles.
The factors that favor the development of melanoma include:
- excessive UV exposure;
- having close relatives who have had melanoma;
- a large number of moles on the body;
- the age of 50 years.
Melanoma often develops on the spot prone to injury moles or birthmarks (on the back, on the feet and palms, in the area of shoulder girdle, on the scalp or neck, upper and lower extremities). People with white skin, blond hair and blue eyes susceptible to melanoma than others.
In 90% of cases of melanoma localized to the skin cells. Melanoma also may appear in conjuctiva or the retina of the eye, mucous membranes of the nose or the mouth and in the rectum and the vagina.
There are forms of melanoma:
- superficial spreading – occurs in 70% of cases;
- nodular – occurs in 15% of cases;
- ukrrentgen (appears under the fingernails or the fingertips) is found in 10% of cases;
- lentiginous (develops mainly on the face) is found in 5% of cases;
- achromatic (pigmentless) – very rare.
How to diagnose?
Melanoma can appear only in nevi, with no hair. If mole hair fell out, which was her first, this is a very alarming signal.
Other symptoms of melanoma:
- the colour change of the nevus – increased pigmentation or weakening;
- the sharp increase in the size of tumors;
- the itching of tumors;
- changing the borders of the mole.
The size of melanoma may be from 5 mm to 2-3 cm is most Often malignant cutaneous melanoma has the appearance of a dense burl with black color. The surface of the melanoma may be eroded and bleeding, the boundaries of the tumors are unclear. Pigmentless melanomas are much rarer.
For melanoma diagnosis using examination of tumors with the help of magnifying glass or special microscope (Dermoscopy). In order to confirm or refute the presence of metastases in the internal organs is carried out ultrasound, CT scans and x-rays. Puncture or biopsy of the skin with the melanoma is not possible, as the injury malignant neoplasms can strengthen and accelerate the growth of the tumor.
Diagnosis of melanoma is complicated by the fact that in the early stages of melanoma may seem like a harmless mole. In the later stages of melanoma may give a wealth of remote metastases.
How to treat?
After diagnostics it is necessary as soon as possible to remove. Improper treatment of melanoma or a delay in treatment can lead to tragic consequences, because malignant melanoma is a very aggressive tumor, quickly giving metastases.
In the treatment of melanoma used a combined method of treatment. When using the combined method of treatment first used irradiation of the tumor with x-rays, and then subjected to surgical excision of tumors with capture at the circumference of the tumor 3-4 cm of healthy skin with fatty tissue and fascia. If melanomaappeared on the face, then surgical intervention is performed under the control of the microscope. In this case try to excise healthy tissue as little as possible, and subsequently carried out reconstructive plastic surgery. After surgery, patients receive anti-inflammatory therapy and some time to comply with bed rest (the duration of which depends on the place, which conducted surgery).
The increase in relapse-free period and increase in life expectancy in some cases can be achieved with the help of immunotherapy. For these purposes, the applied interferon-Alfa and interleukin.
Food in cutaneous melanoma should be balanced and contain all essential for the normal functioning of the body nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Any special requirements to the diet of a patient with melanoma is not shown.
The melanoma metastases first appear in the lymph nodes located near the tumor. Therefore, the regional lymph nodes in melanoma, it is recommended to remove regardless of whether they increased or not. Disseminated metastases in melanoma not only nodal, but also the hematogenous route.
In the presence of distant metastases chemotherapy are used. The tools that you use depend on the localization of metastases. Most often metastatic melanoma affects the brain, lungs and liver, and skin of the trunk and extremities.
The prognosis of melanoma
When melanoma prognosis depends on timeliness of diagnosis. With early diagnosis and timely treatment within the 5 years survival of 60-80% of patients. In the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes over 5 years of age die 70% of patients. If you have remote metastases the majority of patients die within 12 months.
Prevention of melanoma
Prevention of melanoma needs to be removed in time acquired nevi and congenital nevi are prone to trauma. It is also necessary to regularly inspect all the moles on your body (if nevus located on the back or on the scalp, you should ask them to see their loved ones). If the mole or birthmark began to increase in size, changed color, beginning to bleed, etc., you should immediately consult a doctor.