Melanoma of the conjunctiva: signs, diagnosis, treatment
To the malignancies include melanoma of the conjunctiva of the eye. Developing this pathology of pigmented nevi on the place of melanocytes. Most often localized in the skin, and much less frequently in mucous membranes. Melanoma leads to an abrupt loss of vision and represents a great danger to human health.
Melanoma of the eye occurs in melaminovaya tissue. The tumor is characterized by rapid growth and metastasizes and relapses. To date, the exact causes of melanoma of the conjunctiva of the eye is not fully understood. This is due to the fact that such a tumor occurs not often. But still, there are a number of predisposing factors, which are more likely to get malignancy:
- old age;
- the presence of malignant pathology in anamnesis;
- the action of ultraviolet light.
Females are more prone to the formation of melanoma of the conjunctiva.
Clinical signs of melanoma are dependent on the affected area. Basically, melanoma is found in bulbar conjunctiva or the limbus. The tumor has a clear border and uneven surface.
In 85% of cases occur choroidal melanoma, less melanoma ciliary body melanoma and iris. To diagnose the disease is very difficult, so it is important to know the basic symptoms.
At the initial stage, patients experience no symptoms and can only complain to the clouding of the retina. The next stage was to develop complications such as secondary glaucoma, and other inflammatory phenomena. There is pain in the eyes, swollen eyelids, redness.
After that begins the stage at which the output of the malignancy beyond the eye. Exophthalmos appears, and begin to break down the walls of the sockets. Intraocular pressure is lowered.
With the development of metastasis and dissemination of tumor occurs in the lung, kidneys, bones, liver, etc. is Formed by General weakness, fatigue and weight loss. Disturbed appetite. Additional symptoms may occur scleritis, hemophthalmus and clouding of the lens.
There are two main forms of melanoma:
- nodular form;
- the diffuse form.
In structure the tumor may be mixed, epithelioid, spindle cell or fascicular.
For the diagnosis of melanoma are used such methods of research:
- radioisotope diagnostics;
The most important and reliable method of diagnosis is ophthalmoscopy. Using this method identifies the malignancy and other diseases of the eye.
In radiography it is possible to see metastases in distant organs and tissues and bones of the affected eye. To determine the structure of the tumor using histological examination. Eye tissues are examined with a microscope.
For the treatment of melanoma of the conjunctiva of the eye apply laser therapy, cryotherapy, surgical technique and surgical diathermy. The most common way to treat melanoma is the enucleation of the eyeball. After surgery and radiation therapy to remove remaining tumor cells.
Metastases to regional lymph nodes is lymphadenectomy. Further prognosis depends entirely on the patient's age, tumor size and severity of the malignancy. The right treatment gives a 5 year survival rate is approximately 95% of patients.