The melanoma metastases in the liver
Melanoma is a very aggressive malignant tumor developing due to the degeneration of pigmented cells. Aggressive tumors always metastasize. In the pathological process of formation of secondary tumors can be involved various organs. The melanoma metastases in the liver is uncommon, but they are very dangerous.
They develop rapidly and often appear before the detection of the primary tumor.
What happens in the body?
The primary focus of melanoma can pop up in the liver, but more often the melanoma of the liver is a metastasis of this malignancy, the primary focus of which is located in other organs. The aggressiveness of the tumor is so large, and its sensitivity to treatment is so low that the life expectancy of patients with liver metastases in an average of less than one year.
Tumor cells spread through the blood or lymph. Cancer cells, stopping in the liver, form foci, which grow very quickly and significantly outperform the growth of the primary tumors. It is rapid growth and complicates timely diagnosis. Although the diagnosis is based on biopsy does not pose a problem, in most cases, the scale of destruction is too large for the optimistic predictions. Patients often seek help after about three months after the first metastases, and this with the rapid growth of a very significant period of time.
Manifestations of the disease
If melanoma metastases in the liver it formed black clusters of melanin, that is the lesion. The liver responds to the physical and functional changes that affect the entire body.
- The areas of tenderness in the liver
- Enlargement of the liver,
- Structure of the body becomes uneven,
- Pain in the right hypochondrium,
- Enlargement of the spleen,
- Loss of appetite,
- Weight loss,
- Nausea, vomiting,
- Changes of biochemical parameters of blood.
The liver does not occur immediately. For some time, despite the increase in its size, it still manages to work. When some of the compressed bile ducts the flow of bile can be secured through loose, not compressed and undamaged. Further development of the process leads to a significant violation of the outflow of bile, and is accompanied by jaundice.
Metastasis to the liver can lead to the development of collateral circulation when the blood circulation moves to the side and not on the main vessels. This process leads to the manifestation of Palmar erythema is when the palm becomes pink. Also, when the collateral circulation formed spider veins on the skin, especially on the face. Often these symptoms lead the patient to the physician, as other symptoms may not be so pronounced to cause serious concern.
Diagnosis and treatment
For the diagnosis of the examination of the patient, analysis of complaints and prescribe diagnostic procedures:
- Ultrasound of the liver,
- CT and MRI
- Fine-needle biopsy
- Laboratory studies.
Treatment depends on the number and size of metastases. If possible, surgical removal of the lesions with preservation of functional abilities of the body the surgery is performed. However, in the case of melanoma metastases is not always possible or practical. Therefore, most treatment is palliative to alleviate the patient's condition and improve his quality of life. Chemotherapy treatments, radiation therapy can slow down disease processes and extend the patient's life.
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