Superficial spreading melanoma: symptoms, risk factors and treatment
Superficial spreading melanoma (also known as external proliferation of melanoma), as a rule, is the most common form of skin cancer. It most often develops in middle age, usually development occurs during the transmission of the sun on exposed skin. In men, the spread of melanoma occurs more frequently on the back and in women on the lower limbs.
What is superficial spreading melanoma?
Form of melanoma, in which cancer cells (the melanocytes) tend long period to spread in the epidermis for months or years is called superficial spreading melanoma. The interesting thing is that this form of melanoma is growing horizontally on the surface of the skin, while the cancer cells slowly the light striking human skin. The distribution of melanoma on the body forms spots, which are constantly increasing in size and darken. As you know, superficial spreading melanoma can be observed only in light-skinned people.
The affected part of the body superficial spreading melanoma become invasive, i.e., abnormal cells cross the basal membrane of the upper layers of the skin and into the dermis. Rapid growth of melanoma leads to the fact that cancer cells multiply and penetrate into deeper layers of the skin.
Who is at risk of spreading melanoma ?
Two-thirds of cases of melanoma account for surface spread, so early detection of growth resulting spots can save your life.
So, risk factors:
- The age of the person (affects people more than 50 years);
- The previous form of melanoma that has not spread;
- Skin cancer;
- A large number of pigmented spots;
- The presence of moles that are histologically dysplastic;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Light skin that burns easily in the sun.
Less strong factors include blue or green eyes, blond hair and signs of damaging UV rays.
What would be the signs?
Melanoma usually manifests itself in high growth, which displays different colors of stains, such as black, brown, grey, pink, blue and white. Their edges are badly limited with leather, so can have a fuzzy structure. The shape is often asymmetrical, so if you can fold the spot in half, the edges will not match.
The growth and reproduction of cancer cells can pass without symptoms, but can be such characteristics as krovotoka, itching or the feeling of pain. Parts of the body where the growths usually develop include upper back, lower legs, head, and neck.
Melanoma usually occurs in the upper layer of the skin, but can quickly penetrate into the deeper layers, and then spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to distant sites in the body. Common areas of metastasis are the lungs, liver, brain and bone.
How can I fix it?
Superficial spreading melanoma (PFP) is one of the types of skin lesions that can be precursors to skin cancer. At first glance, the disease seems not serious, as like large freckles or moles. However, it is important to know that ignoring the treatment of this form of melanoma can lead to death.
Surgical and combined methods of treatment are considered major. The first stage is characterized by the excision of the tumor, which the doctor grabs 2-4 cm of healthy skin. Then the wound is sutured, and the patient must comply with bed rest and anti-inflammatory therapy.