Life expectancy with melanoma stage 4
Melanoma is one of the types of pathologies of the skin, which are oncological in nature. It can occur in anyone at any age, but most melanoma occurs in females. Today, doctors are extremely concerned that in recent years significantly increased the number of patients the melanoma. And manifest these tumors is mainly from melanocytes that are cells producing the pigment called melanin. The lion's share of patients with melanoma have this formation on the skin. But, nevertheless, it occurs on the conjunctiva and on the mucous membrane of noma, eyes, vagina, mouth and even the rectum. Factors leading to the emergence of the melanoma:
- ultraviolet light on unprotected skin;
- very pale skin;
- cases of melanoma in close relatives;
- a large number of moles;
If to speak about the epidemiology of this disease, in middle Europe it is found in 10 cases out of 100 thousand inhabitants. But in America and Australia, the significance of such tumors is higher, namely approximately 40 cases. It is very important to determine the stage of melanoma, because the only way the doctor will be able to carry out appropriate treatment and to give a more correct prediction. Of course, in most cases, when people hear that diagnosis, they are interested in the forecast of their life. So as every normal person experiences in his life and for the future life of their loved ones.
What are the stages of melanoma are there and what are they characterized by?
Of course from the stage of the melanoma will depend on the course of melanoma at the moment, and this will depend on the ongoing treatment of the patient. All there are five stages of melanoma. The first is the zero or initial phase of melanoma in which tumor cells are defined only in the outer cell layer of the human skin. Since at this stage until there is no germination in deep-lying tissue.
This is followed by melanoma stage 1. Here the stage is determined by tumor thickness, and it should not exceed one millimeter in this case. The epidermis is the outside covered with different kinds of expressions. However, they may not be present, but at the same time, the thickness of the melanoma will reach two millimeters, and adjacent to the melanoma lymph nodes did not affected it cells.
This is followed by melanoma of 2 degrees, which is characterized by dimensions of not less than one mm thick. But it can be 1-2 mm, if there are symptoms of ulcerations. This also can be ranked and those of tumor, which have a thickness of more than two millimeters when expressing their surfaces or without them. This stage is also did not foresee the defeat of the lymph nodes with melanoma cells, even with a large proximity to them.
Z-stage melanoma, which goes on, is characterized by involvement of the neighboring tissues pathological process. In addition, during the study of this education, the patient detects the presence of tumor cells in one or a few lymph nodes that are concentrated in close proximity to the affected area of the epidermis. This does not exclude the possibility that melanoma cells spread beyond the primary tumor, but in this case the lymph nodes will not be affected.
The latter, melanoma stage 4 is characterized by a full spread of cancer cells in the lymph nodes and in organs that are close and a little further from the affected areas of the skin.
If we talk about the stages of melanoma according to Clark, he has identified five stages of invasion of the melanoma in the dermis of the skin. In the first stage tumor cells located in the epidermis, and features commensurate with invasion melanoma. On the second level, the tumor has alreadystarting to break down the membrane and begins the invasion of the first divisions the papillary layer of the skin. Next, tumor cells destroy the whole papillary layer of the skin, but it does not affect the reticular layer. This is the third level of infestation. On the fourth level there is filling of the reticular layer of the skin, and on the fifth already is invasion fat cells of the dermis.
Forecasts at different stages of melanoma?
As already mentioned, from the stage of melanoma depends directly on the life expectancy of the patient. So for the first and second stage is 85% five-year survival rate. If in the third stage only affected one of the lymph nodes, the figure is 50 %, but if you hit four or more lymph nodes, the survival rate will reach 15-20%. In the fourth stage of melanoma five-year survival rate does not even reach 5 %.
However, most melanoma are determined on the 1st and 2nd stages. In this case, the forecast can be depending on the thickness of the formation, as the thickness is the main equivalent to the weight of the tumor, which directly depends on the risk of the spread of metastasis. So, the tumor, which has a thickness of not more than 0.75 mm very easy to remove and survival of the patient comes to 99 %. Those patients who are diagnosed with the tumor of up to one mm account for a major low-risk group and their number amounts to 40%.
Stage 4 melanoma
Many people are interested in the question of life expectancy with melanoma stage 4, so as to provide treatment in this case is very, very difficult. Here, the melanoma has gone into the lymph nodes and the metastases spread to different body parts and organs. All entities affected nodes and metastases are removed by surgery, and chemotherapy at this stage is almost not effective. The lion's share of doctors tend to use biochemotherapy. But all this has almost no effect on the convalescence of the patient, and he dies within 12 months. However, the ten-year survival in this situation is 10-15%.
Today is the age of this disease varies, and can hit like a small child and an old man. It is therefore essential to prevent the development of melanoma to stage 4, and fix the problem in the early stages, so you get more of a chance at life.