Uveal melanoma: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Primary malignant tumors of the eye refers uveal melanoma. Develops a tumor in chorioidea eyes, in the iris or ciliary body.
The reasons for the development
A cancerous tumor formed from the cells of melanocytes, which produce melanin. It is the melanin, responsible for color of the skin or eyes, be a person. Most often the disease begins in the choroid.
To pathological process lead to two main reasons:
- a mutation in the gene GNAQ;
- mutation of the gene GNA11.
Changes in these genes cause excessive activation of the protein signal (transmit signal). This signal is a strong oncogene that can cause malignant processes.
Signs of melanoma
Clinical manifestations of uveal melanoma depends on the tumor stage and severity of the disease.
To the standard symptoms of the disease include:
- blurred vision;
- pain in the eyes;
- changes or darkening of the iris and the pupil;
- redness of the eye;
With the defeat of chorioid eyes characteristically asymptomatic, the tumor can be detected only at random survey. A patient with melanoma has blurred vision, flashes of light.
If the tumor originated in the ciliary body, there is stagnation, there is a convoluted structure of the ciliary vessels. Expand the scleral channels and the dislocation of the lens. In the field of the affected eye are formed gaps in the form of enhanced new blood vessels. Epithelial cells migrate into the perivascular space.
In the spread of uveal melanoma formed clutches and barrier structures, collapse of capillary walls and the formation of emboli. Emboli appear as a result of improper mitosis and consist of several small cells.
Is melanoma of the star-shaped or ribbon-shaped cells. All tumor cells have an altered kernel and disturbed mitotic cycle.
Diagnosis of uveal melanoma is carried out using the method of ultrasound and fluorescent angiography. Be administered if necessary computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Biopsy in such cases is not carried out.
On angiography it is possible to estimate the condition of blood vessels and how the blood comes to the eye. Ultrasound gives accurate results and allows us to diagnose the extent of the tumor and the degree of prevalence.
Also, the doctor examines the patient's eyes using a special lamp and Ophthalmoscope, collects the anamnesis. Differencebut melanoma with eye diseases that have similar symptoms.
Treatment of melanoma
In each case, the treatment of uveal melanoma is appointed strictly individually, taking into account the condition of the patient, severity of the cancer process and the type of tumor.
Typically assigned to the surgical removal of the melanoma, radiation therapy, and proton therapy. Also performed enucleation, brachytherapy, thermotherapy transpupillary.
The most common method of treatment is brachytherapy. The method consists in that in the area of the damaged eye is inserted radioactive plate for a certain period of time, which adversely affects the tumor.
In the absence of effect from treatment it is recommended to remove the eye completely. After that, the patient is inserted into an ocular implant.
Heat therapy involves using a laser beam directly at the site of the malignancy to remove atypical cells. Usually used in combination with radiation therapy.