Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can appear on the skin, on a mucous membrane (mouth, rectum, vagina) or on the retina of the eye. This type of tumor quickly metastasizes (metastases can appear in any organ), after which the chances of recovery dramatically decrease. In addition, malignant melanoma tends to recur.
There has recently been a sharp increase in the number of cases of melanoma. The main factor affecting the rising incidence of melanoma, ultraviolet radiation is considered: as from sunlight and from tanning beds. To the development of melanoma predispose sunburn. In melanoma cells, contains large amounts of melanin, causing the tumor is darker in this area is rare pigmentless of the tumor.
Not least among the predisposing to melanoma development factors is heredity. Owners of blond hair, blue eyes and white skin, more exposed to the risk of melanoma.
Melanoma is often found in people who have large numbers of moles (more than 50). It is believed that the injury of moles increases the risk of developing melanoma. Also malignant degeneration of moles may be caused by hormonal changes in the body (puberty, pregnancy) or failure of a hormonal background as a result of various diseases.
Detection of melanoma requires immediate initiation of treatment. Timely initiation of treatment contributes to the fact that most of these tumors are localized on the skin of the lower extremities, and in men on the torso.
Identify the following common clinical forms of the melanoma:
- superficial spreading – this form is found in approximately 70% of cases the diagnosis of melanoma, develops in women more often than men, have a favorable prognosis;
- nodular is diagnosed in approximately 15% of cases, is most common in men, the most unfavorable prognostic plan;
- ukrrentgen – occurs in approximately 10% of cases, is growing under the nail plates on the fingertips, palms;
- lentiginous – is found less than 5% of cases, most often appears on the face in the form of pigment spots.
Rare forms include:
- pigmentless melanoma;
- melanoma of the mucous membranes;
- melanoma of the retina;
- melanoma of the soft tissues.
Melanoma is characterized by such symptoms:
- change in the color of moles or pigment spots;
- its growth;
- the appearance of redness around the spots;
- itching or pain;
- the appearance of the radiant growths coming from moles or pigmented spots in different directions.
The main treatment of melanoma that has not metastasized, is a surgical method. A malignant tumor removed along with a healthy intact tissue in a radius of 2-3 cm from the tumor. Also removed subcutaneous tissue and fascia muscles. After surgical treatment of melanoma of the face or limbs produce large cosmetic defects that require subsequent correction.
Also in the treatment of melanoma can be used, such treatments:
- radiation therapy;
Radiation therapy allows to influence the tumor tissue and virtually no damage to healthy tissue and organs. Immunotherapy is carried out using preparations of interferon and interleukin.
Drugs and doses for chemotherapy in melanoma are chosen individually (depending on the stagemalignancy and localization of metastases). The number of cycles of chemotherapy depends on how quickly developing melanoma, and acceptability to patients of drugs. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is checked by the control examination after each course of chemotherapy. In 20-25% of cases the chemotherapy allows to stabilize the tumor process.
First when metastasis is affected is closest to the region the appearance of a melanoma and a lymph node (it is usually removed). In order to determine whether the rest of the affected lymph nodes, examined the lymph node, if there are no metastases, the probability of their occurrence in other lymph nodes does not exceed 2%. When melanoma metastasis to other organs symptomatic drug therapy and chemotherapy.
In the presence of metastatic lesions to the internal organs, average life expectancy is 6 months. Women in the case of diagnosing melanoma have the best chance to survive compared to men.
The prognosis of the disease influences the level of invasion and the presence of expressions. Melanoma with vertical growth have a worse prognosis compared with melanoma spreading over the surface of the skin.