When there are metastases in the abdominal cavity?
Metastases appear in advanced stages of oncological process. Metastases in the abdominal cavity can occur in any type of cancer. This may be affected any organs located in the abdominal cavity (pancreas, stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, reproductive organs) and abdominal wall. Since metastasis may spread with the flow of lymph, they can appear in the lymph nodes: parietal (the lymph nodes located in the abdominal wall) and visceral (lymph nodes, raspolozhennykh inside the abdominal cavity).
If the metastases are small, clinical symptoms may not occur. The suspected presence of metastases localized in the abdominal cavity, can occur in the absence of improvement in the patient's condition after it was removed the primary tumor.
The symptoms of metastases in the abdomen depend on their localization. Metastases in the liver, yellow sclera and skin. Metastases in the stomach manifested by nausea with or without food. Metastases in the intestine lead to disorders of stool and presence of blood in the stool. Metastases in the abdominal cavity can simultaneously infiltrate multiple organs, in this case, the symptoms will be diverse.
The most common are:
- the weight loss, accompanied by lack of appetite;
- nausea and vomiting;
- weakness and drowsiness.
The organs of the abdominal cavity are protected by special tissue of peritoneum that secretes a fluid that protects the organs from adhesion, guaranteeing the free movement of the loop of the intestine and suck the excess. The penetration of metastases into the peritoneum absorption of this fluid is disturbed, thereby increasing the abdomen (ascites develops).
Visually, the ascites becomes apparent when the accumulation of one liter of fluid in the abdominal cavity. In lean patients may bulge navel. When accumulation in the abdominal cavity 5-20 l of fluid results in compression of internal organs occurs with pulmonary and cardiac failure. For the treatment of ascites is applied to the pumping liquid may be temporary drainages.
In the diagnosis of metastases in the abdominal cavity is taken into account the age of the patient (young people in General, the rate of formation of metastases and their number is much higher than the elderly). In addition to taking a history and study of clinical manifestations that a patient complains, we conducted a General analysis of blood and determined the levels of various tumor markers.
For the diagnosis of metastases in the abdominal cavity is often used ultrasound and computed tomography. For examination of lymph nodes is outflow. In ambiguous cases, there is performed a needle biopsy.
Successful treatment of metastases of the abdominal cavity largely depends on the stage of malignant tumors that gave metastases, and treatment. It is very important to increase the chances of survival to detect and treat all the metastases, previously fully removing the mother tumor. Nearby to the parent tumor, the lymph nodes are removed as a preventive measure.
The main method of treatment of metastases in the abdominal cavity is surgical method: all detected metastases should be removed, if need be, with parts of the affected organs. Depending on the localization of metastases are various abdominal surgery, which can cause a variety of complications.
Chemotherapy is used along with the surgical technique. Drug is administered vnutriuretralnami way. This treatment can take up to 1.5 years.
Another effective method of treatment of metastases in the abdominala cavity – therapeutic hyperthermia. The method involves the high temperature (39-45ºC) on individual organs or whole body parts, which increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation. The basic principle of this treatment is that high temperature causes damage to cancer cells, while normal tissue remains unharmed. To kill all cancer cells, you need to warm the affected cancer process fabric up to 46ºC for 20 minutes, but this procedure will damage the healthy tissue. Therefore, heating is only possible up to 45 º C, but over a longer period of time. Treatment of metastases in the abdominal cavity can be performed with the help of radiation therapy, citerei, radiofrequency ablation.
Upon detection of metastases in the abdominal cavity should completely refrain from drinking alcohol, limit intake of fatty and spicy foods. You should minimize the burden on the liver and kidneys, as well as control the amount of fluids you drink.