Metastases without a primary tumor: diagnosis and treatment
In some cases, when malignancy in a patient detected metastases without primary tumor. The tumor itself to determine is quite difficult, even with advanced methods of examination.
Metastases without a primary tumor account for about 15% of all oncological diseases. And men, this pathology is found more often than women. The main part of the formations is adenocarcinoma.
Cancer metastases without primary tumor can be detected in lung, prostate gland, organs of the respiratory tract and the pancreas. Found the isolated localization of a metastasis in a particular organ or lymph node in the same zone.
Secondary metastases appear as a result of delayed treatment of cancer or on the background of ineffective treatment. Such metastases can occur after a long period of time since treatment. This is the most serious complication dangerous to human life than the malignant tumors.
The main purpose of metastases without primary tumor or secondary metastasis early detection and elimination of disease.
The reasons for the development
According to medical studies, there are certain factors that contribute to the development of secondary metastases and impact on further prognosis of any malignant tumors:
- the localization of the tumor, the harder it is to detect the tumor, the more likely the emergence of secondary foci;
- form of tumor and the structure of the rapid growth of different tumor infiltrative and poorly differentiated cancers, which metastasize early;
- the method of treatment also plays an important role in the development of metastasis in a patient;
- stage of cancer at diagnosis of the disease in the latter stages of the disease almost 100% of cases will be secondary metastases;
- the age of the patient are the hardest disease occurs in the elderly, the young, the number of relapses is much rarer.
Ways of metastasis
Distinguish hematogenous and lymphogenic way of metastasis. When limpiando the way cancer cells invade lymph vessels along with lymph circulation. This can be the nearest or distant lymph nodes. Most often metastasize in this way all the internal organs, namely the larynx, intestines, esophagus, stomach, etc.
Hematogenous route of development of metastases without primary tumor usually gives multiple distant metastases. Main place of localization of lungs, bones, soft tissues, and mammary glands.
Mixed type of metastases can occur to liver, malignant tumors of kidney, stomach or lungs. Tumors of the abdominal cavity give disseminatio small metastases on the peritoneum with the accession of ascites.
Even separately the remaining tumor cells are able to give a new cancer. This contributes to ineffective therapy: radiation therapy, surgical treatment. During surgery can remain part of atypical cells that give life to a new entity.
To detect recurrences in a careful examination of the patient. To this end, a cytological or histological examination of pieces of tissue from the affected area.
The prognosis of malignancy with metastases without primary tumor will depend on the number of metastases and their distribution in the human body. Prevention of formation of metastases is the timely diagnosis and treatment of cancer.