Metastases in ovarian cancer
Cancer is the least studied and one of the most insidious diseases of modern society. Unexplained appearance of the disease and frequent development of relapses after radical treatment make us afraid of him. Still an unsolved mystery are the causes of the disease and the exact mechanism of formation of secondary tumor foci.
The reasons for the emergence and growth of metastases is one of the most important tasks of modern Oncology. The complexity of it is what is still not revealed regularity with which the affected cells are attached to the different bodies. It also remains a mystery why different types of cancer metastases appear at different stages of the disease.
Features of ovarian cancer
Unlike many other cancers, in which metastases appear almost immediately after the onset of illness (in contact with the affected cells from tissues into blood or lymph vessels, which flow of the fluid, they will spread to other organs), metastases in ovarian cancer do appear in the third stage of the disease.
In addition, ovarian cancer is characterized by an asymptomatic disease at early stages. The affected cells penetrate from the ovaries into the abdominal cavity, nearby lymph nodes and form metastases that reach the vagina and other pelvic organs. At this stage, the woman experiences pain, which allows her to draw attention to the problem.
Therefore, the appearance of metastasis in the ovaries is preceded by such stages of the disease:
- The first is the development of cancer in one or both ovaries, the cancer cells do not penetrate beyond the ovaries.
- The second is the proliferation of degenerated cells the flow of lymph and blood to other organs of the pelvis.
However, diagnosis often is made at the third stage (formation of metastasis in the pelvic organs and peritoneum) or the fourth (the development of metastases in distant organs: the liver and lungs, the brain and bone marrow).
The lack of noticeable symptoms in the early stages of the disease gives way to the rise of pain as its development. Experts note the following signs and symptoms of metastases in the ovaries:
- Bursting, dull pain in the abdomen.
- Frequent urination, constipation.
- An increase in the abdomen.
- Weakness, fatigue.
- Loss of appetite, weight loss.
- Violation of the menstrual cycle.
- Breast sensitivity or, conversely, the atrophy of the mammary glands.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer
The presence of a woman several of the above symptoms is a serious reason to visit a specialist, as in case of suspected ovarian cancer, better to be safe than to miss the early stages of the disease.
The doctor will begin the examination with the appointment of the biochemical and General blood tests, which will help to identify markers of malignant neoplasms. A gynaecological examination is often biased, as it allows to skip the microscopic tumor. Compared to him, a clear advantage have a ultrasound pelvic and vaginal ultrasound. Also come to the aid of a rectal examination, and, if necessary, colonoscopy and rektomanoskopii.
To identify metastatic cancer carried out x-ray examination of the lungs. And also take a puncture of the lymph nodes of the peritoneum.
A CT scan or MRI is prescribed when almost believe in the existence of a tumor, but I can't for the ultrasound to determine its exact size and location. To determine the type of cancer is histology and lymph node puncture.
Among the risk factors thisdisease oncologists provide:
- The age of 50 after ten years.
- Genetic predisposition. Women whose relatives were affected by this disease should be screened at least once per year that as they age should be increased to quarterly.
- Childlessness and the absence of lactation is also a risk factor. A greater number of pregnancies involves fewer menstrual cycles. The growth of cell division in the ovaries after the egg increases the claim of mutational processes. Thus, this disease can cause the drugs that stimulate ovulation, taken of barren women.
- Some experts argue that the application of antiperspirants to the perineum increases the risk of cancer because of cancerogenity talc that is included with this tool.
A direct relationship between living conditions, diet and occurrence of this disease is not revealed, though it is noticed that women in Metropolitan areas are affected to a greater extent than the women of the village.